Open Access Minireview Article

Educational Interventions in Adolescents, for the Management of Obesity: A Review of the Literature

María de los Ángeles Castro-Cornejo, Xiomara Arteaga-Herrera, Luis Antonio Díaz-Becerril, Nicolás Padilla-Raygoza

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i130218

Introduction: Overweight and obesity is a serious global health problem in minors related to multiple chronic degenerative or fatal diseases.

Aim: To analyze the results of available scientific studies of educational interventions in the management of overweight or obesity in adolescents.

Methodology: Those studies found in a database between 2014-2019 that performed intervention or management of overweight or obesity in a population between 6 and 18 years of age were included.

Results and Discussion: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria of which only three performed a probabilistic sampling being these more significant. Different types of interventions were identified from educational, cognitive-behavioral and physical activity promotion. The variables with the greatest significant difference were body composition and waist circumference, the Body Mass Index still has no significant difference.

Conclusion: Educational interventions achieve an important role in the management of overweight or obesity having significant changes in the short, medium and long term.

Open Access Original Research Article

Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children Younger than 5 Years in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso): Prevalence and Risks Factors Influencing Severity

Zakaria Gamsonré, Cyrille Bisseye, Léon W. Nitiema, Birama Diarra, Théodora M. Zohoncon, Issoufou Tao, Tegwindé Rebeca Compaoré, Florencia W. Djigma, Djénéba Ouermi, Johan Nordgren, Virginio Pietra, Jacques Simporé

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i130216

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of astrovirus infections and associated risks factors.

Methods: A prospective study was undertaken from May 2009 to March 2010, covering the rainy and dry seasons, at the Saint Camille Medical Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 213 non hospitalized children less than 5 years of age with diarrhea were enrolled and examined for astrovirus, others enteropathogens, and clinico-epidemiological aspects.

Results: Astroviruses prevalence among the enrolled children was 14.6%. Astrovirus infections were common during the cold dry season from December to February (38.7%), during the rainy season from June to September (54.8%), also during dry season in March (3.2%) and May (3.2%). Children younger than 11 months of age were most affected by astroviruses (16%). Moderate and severe malnutrition influenced more severe symptoms of astrovirus related diarrheas.

Conclusion: The present study shows that astroviruses have an important role in pediatric viral-associated diarrhea in Burkina Faso. Diarrhea is more severe in malnourished children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding Behavioural Temperament of Phlebotomus argentipes Under the Influence of DDT-IRS Versus SP-IRS for Scoping New Approaches for Maximum Control Over the VL-Vector Population in Bihar

Vijay Kumar, Aarti Rama, Rakesh Mandal, Pradeep Das

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i130217

Background: After the decades of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) use, Phlebotomus argentipes reportedly developed resistance against it affecting every aspect of vector control at grass-root level. Although DDT based Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) has been replaced with Alphacypermethrine-a Synthetic Pyrethroid (SP) based insecticide, since 2016 but its successful implementation at the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) endemic regime of Bihar doesn’t cause much effect upon VL vector density. Furthermore, the outcomes of existing operational research works, it had been observed that VL vectors are continuously changing its behavior under the pressure of insecticides.

Methods: For validating the hypothesis, present study has been carried out at Vaishali and Patna being highly and semi-endemic sites respectively for quantifying the oriental behavior among VL vectors persuaded by the IRS and enforce them to remain alive and get trapped in light trap even after changed chemical composition of IRS i.e., SP-IRS from routine DDT-IRS.

Results: Following results, a significant reduction in sand fly density (i.e., 33.09% and 29.16%) was observed for outdoor and indoor caught sand flies, collected with light trap and aspirator respectively. Significant higher no. of sand fly collection in terms of per light traps per night was recorded from the outdoor sites than those from indoor habitat for each village of Vaishali and Saran district of Bihar. Higher no. of male sand flies than to that of female ones were collected from outdoor sites and only unfed female sand flies (i.e., 100%) were caught following SP-IRS from each study villages of Vaishali and Saran districts of Bihar.

Conclusions: The results of higher no. of sand flies collection from the outdoor sites as compared with the indoor habitat validate the hypothesis of gradual shifting of habitat of VL vectors from endophilic to exophilic which is undoubtedly followed due to the fact of developed resistance among them against chemical constituent of IRS. Results  provide very useful information about the sand fly dynamics under the impact of IRS and accordingly, advocates the combined approach of IRS along with insecticidal fogging together at a same time that could be an effective dividend for maximum VL vector control along for negotiating VL cases at par for longer duration during the maintenance phase at the VL foci.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of Seropositive HIV and HBsAg Cases among Women Booking for Antenatal Care at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

P. A. Awoyesuku, D. A. Macpepple, B. O. Altraide, D. H. John

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i130219

Background: Infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are global public health problems. These infections during pregnancy increase the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, and also pose a risk to the fetus due to mother to child transmission.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of seropositive HIV and HBsAg cases amongst pregnant women at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH).

Methodology: A retrospective review of hospital and laboratory records of all pregnant women booked at RSUTH in two years, from May 2017 to April 2019, was carried out. Data on patients’ age, parity and educational level and reactivity of HIV and HBsAg test at booking were retrieved using structured proforma and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7. Test for significance using Chi-square was set at a significant level of P<0.05.

Results: 3560 patients had HIV and HBsAg screening out of which 148 (4.2%) and 9 (0.3%) respectively were positive. The comorbidity rate in this study was 0.06%. The mean age was 31.5±4.7 years and the mean gestational age at booking was 22.1±6.8 weeks. There was no significant relationship between their age (χ2 = 2.690, p-value=0.442) and parity (χ2 = 3.759, p-value = 0.145) with HIV seropositivity, but these were significant for HBsAg (χ2 = 13.691, p-value = 0.003) (χ2 = 13.121, p-value=0.001).  Educational status was significant for HIV (χ2 = 16.188, p-value=0.000) but not for HBsAg (χ2 = 0.229, p-value=0.892).

Conclusion: The seroprevalence rate of HIV and HBsAg in this study were low. HIV seroprevalence was significantly affected by lower education, while HBsAg seroprevalence was significantly affected by younger maternal age and nulliparity. Continued screening of pregnant women for these infections remains valuable and further community-based studies to identify risk factors are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Features of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Zliten (North West of Libya)

Tarek Mohamed Arshah, A. Arhman Mohamed Arshah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i130220

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is endemic in north-west of Libya for long time and it’s spread to other new foci continues to involve new areas like Taurgha, Sirt and recently, Zliten. Most of the patients in north-west of Libya were infected with zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, which caused by leishmania major, although some cases of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica were also reported. Zliten is a coastal city in the north west of Libya; with more than 289000 people; and now is known to be a new focus since 2016 when the sudden increase of the number of patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis had occurred.

Aims: This study was performed to observe epidemiological changes about incidence, age of patients, geographical distribution in Zliten city over a period of last 2 year (2017 and 2018(.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study as retrospective study over time of two years, involving all patients, who were presented or referred, to get management of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis,  in three accredited outpatient departments for cutaneous leishmania (in Zliten). The data were collected and analyzed in Zliten Teching Hospital.

Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Zliten Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2017 and 31st December 2018.

Methodology: The study included all patients (different gender and from all age groups) with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, who sought medical advice in dermatology reference clinics in Zliten, over the period of 2 years (2017 and 2018). The main collected data were age, sex, number of lesions, and affected sites in the body, residency of the patients, year and month of presentation. The analysis of data was made with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 25).

Results: Eight hundred thirty nine patients were included in this study. The majority of patients came from Zliten and these represented 95.6%, while the most of them came from Majer (south eastern part of Zliten City with more than 25000 people living in it) and represented 45.5% of total patients with CL included in this study, followed by Al-juma (south western part of Zliten with around 52000 people), represented (28%) of total patients with CL.

Males were found to be more affected, with male to female ratio, 2.4:1. The most affected age group were these less than forty with peak incidence at age group (20 yrs to 30 yrs). The registered patients in 2017 were 397, this number had increased slightly to be 440 in the following year (2018).

The distribution of patients had shown seasonal variations, with steep increase in the number of cases in December, November and January.

Conclusion: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is remained to be a major health problem in Zliten, affecting a large number of population every year and need further study to determine molecular identification of parasites, and more efforts are needed to control the vector and reservoir.