Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Mapping of Measles-Rubella Campaign in a Rural Area near Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

N. R. Ramesh Masthi, Afraz Jahan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i330227

Immunization is an important public health intervention. The Measles-Rubella (MR) campaign was launched during 2017 in India for the elimination of measles. This study explored vaccination coverage and spatial mapping using QGIS and Google Earth Pro. WHO-EPI 30 clusters sampling technique for evaluation of vaccination coverage was performed in villages within the rural area of a Medical College near Bengaluru. Seven children aged 2-15 years were surveyed per cluster, resulting in 210 children. Smartphones having GPS/Garmin GPS72H (handheld GPS receiver) were used for noting coordinates. Subsequently all these coordinates were plotted for spatial mapping of vaccination coverage. The geospatial characteristics of the households surveyed were described using spatial mapping. Results indicate that 87.6% were immunized with MR Vaccine under the campaign, but 12.4% remained unimmunized, the reasons given being absence, ignorance, or refusal because of rumours concerning side-effects. The Measles-Rubella campaign coverage was found to be satisfactory. In addition the spatial mapping is a useful tool for measurement of coverage of a vaccination campaign. There was no clustering of unimmunized subjects observed on spatial mapping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climatic Factors on Dengue Incidences in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka

K. A. N. K. Karunarathna, J. Sriranganesan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i330228

Introduction: Health sector is one of the most important sectors of any country. Many aspects such as diseases, health practices, and institutions are associated with health. Among different infectious diseases, dengue has become a major health issue for human in most tropical and subtropical regions. It is a viral disease originated and spread from mosquito and it is in several forms. Since, this seriously affects human life, taking necessary measures, including policies, rules, regulation and best practices to bring this menace into a minimum level, is essential. Such actions require proper background about the disease including factors that this disease depends on. Several factors may be associated with dengue fever and climatic variables take a greater place. Effect of these variables may vary from area to area.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the impact of climatic variables for progression of dengue disease in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, which is consisted of three districts: Batticaloa; Trincomalee and Ampara.

Study Design: Number of dengue incidences and climatic variables such as rainfall, temperature, number of rainy days, day time humidity, night-time humidity, number of sunny days, and UV Index were obtained for each month in the period from 2009 to 2017 from Meteorology Department and statistical abstracts of Sri Lanka. Analysis was carried out by using the statistical techniques: correlation analysis; regression analysis; principle component analysis and a graphical technique, contour maps.

Results: Only a few climatic factors affect dengue incidences in these three districts. However, no any regular pattern could be observed. Impact of each climatic factor varies from district to district. In Batticaloa district, a number of rainy days and day time humidity affect dengue incidences negatively and positively respectively meanwhile wind speed positively affects dengue incidences in Ampara district. No any climatic variables in Trincomalee district show a relationship with dengue incidences in the district. In general, moderate humidity creates a favourable situation for the spread of dengue disease irrespective of districts. Heavy rainfall does not show a relation with dengue incidences as people believe.

Conclusion: It is difficult to investigate the impact of each climatic factor alone on dengue incidences because there are inter correlated. Number of dengue incidences may depend on many other variables such as population density, geographical location, health practices, personal health status, knowledge, policies of different institutes and organizations. It is essential to incorporate these sorts of variables also to have a proper understanding of the dengue disease and its spread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Characteristic of Malaria Coinfected with Dengue Fever in Hodeidah, Yemen

Asma’a Al-Areeqi, Saeed Alghalibi, Qais Yusuf, Isra'a Al-Masrafi, Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i330230

Introduction: Malaria and dengue fever are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in tropical areas and represent major public health problems. They are transmitted by mosquito namely Anopheles and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Hodeidah is a high density with these vectors. Also, co-infection of these diseases has (malaria and dengue) become undetected due to lack of suspicious clinical suspicion and overlapping symptoms.

Aim of the Study: The study aimed to detect the prevalence of co-infection with malaria and dengue fever, determine the clinical presentation within febrile patients in Hodeidah city and determine some potential risk factors associated with co-infection.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (from January to December 2017) in febrile patients. All patients were designed into three groups: Group A (co-infected with malaria and dengue); Group B (malaria as mono-infection) and Group C (dengue as mono-infection). The diagnosis of malaria was by microscopic and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and the dengue virus was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The diagnosis was performed in Center of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases (CTMID), Authority of AL-Thawra Public Hospital-Hodeidah, in collaboration with the Tihama Foundation for Medical-Pharmaceutical Studies and Research (TFMPSR), Hodeidah, Yemen.

Results: Out of 270 febrile patients, 82 cases (30.4%) patients were malaria – dengue coinfection, 100 cases (37.0%) of malaria, 21 cases (7.7%) of dengue and 67 cases (24.8%) were non-malaria and non-dengue. The most common symptoms were fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia and retro-orbital pain, where the clinical symptoms of co-infected patients were more like dengue than malaria. One death was reported in malaria – dengue coinfection, with a case fatality rate (CFR%)  of 1.2% (1/82).

Conclusion: Our results show a high prevalence of malaria – dengue coinfecion in Hodeidah, Yemen as the first time. These due to a high density of vectors in this region and endemic areas for malaria and dengue. Furthermore, surveillance strategies, preventive measures and healthcare worker's education are critical for curtailing this problem and lifesaving.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Zinc, Vitamin C and Vitamin E Levels in Male Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ifeanyichukwu Martin Ositadinma, Ngwu Amauche Martina

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i330231

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the serum/plasma levels of zinc, vitamin C and E in male subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus to establish their concentration pattern.

Place and Duration of Study: Medical outpatient clinic, Chemical Pathology Laboratory of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, between January and December 2016.

Methodology: This prospective cohort study enrolled 40 male individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 40 apparently healthy control, within the age range of 45-75 years. Zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E, and fasting blood glucose levels were determined at pre-treatment, six months and 12 months into treatment.

Results: The mean values of zinc, vitamin E and fasting blood glucose were significantly higher at pre-treatment compared to apparently healthy control values (147. 76 +/- 32.95 vs 114.31+/- 15.58 µg/dl, 11.88 +/- 3.13 vs 3.42 +/- 0.21 mg/dl and 8.08 +/- 3.22 vs 5.25+/- 0.35 mmol/l respectively) (p=<0.001, <0.001, and <0.001 respectively). At 6 month into treatment in comparison to pre-treatment values, there were significant decreases in vitamin C (3.90+/-0.97 vs 5.15+/-1.43 mg/dl) (p= 0.04). At 12 month into treatment in comparison to pre-treatment values, there were significant decreases in vitamin C (3.25+/-0.16 vs 5.15+/-1.43 mg/dl) (p= <0.001). At pre-treatment, vitamin C significantly decrease from 6.49 +/- 0.96 mg/dl in age group 45-64 years to 4.10 +/- 0.76 mg/dl in age >65 years (p=0.01).

Conclusion: The levels of vitamin C were lower at six months, but lowest at 12 month into treatment. Also vitamin C levels were found to be lower in age >65 years.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Cholera Epidemiology: A Focus on Africa; with a Keen Interest on Nigeria

Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v40i330229

Cholera is still a problem in the world today. A huge population of deaths due to cholera disease still occur in Sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria most especially), Asia, the Americas and other developing countries, where approximately 1.7 billion inhabitants are still served by faecally polluted water sources. Approximately, 2.4 billion inhabitants of these areas of the world lack the majorly required sanitary conditions of living. Legros, asserts that, as of 2019, about forty-seven countries of the globe, are still affected by cholera. Raw or undercooked, contaminated seafood, serves as a vehicle for the transmission (especially to non-endemic areas). A Case Fatality Rate of 4.87% was recorded from 34 Local Government Areas of Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Kano and Zamfara state in Nigeria by the 34th week, in 2018, while 298 confirmed cases and 38 deaths (CFR 1.5%) were recorded from three Local Government Areas in two States (Adamawa & Borno) by Epidemiological week 41 in 2019. Cholera in some cases is regarded as a “disease of the poor” because the populations most affected are those that cannot afford to provide the basic health facilities for themselves. For example, waste management systems, and good accommodation with toilet facilities (the living and health conditions of the people) are wanting. In 2017, A Global Roadmap to 2030 was launched by the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC Ending Cholera) to decrease the death rate due to cholera by 90%. By so doing, the disease can be eradicated from at least half of the 47 cholera-affected countries. The objectives of this roadmap are: to fortify health systems, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and to coordinate different ways by which cholera can be controlled in these countries by 2030 (ensuring early detection and prompt response to contain outbreaks). This review aimed to understand the epidemiology of cholera in Nigeria, Africa and the world at large, to access the level of spread, management and preventive measures so far implemented in the endemic regions.