Open Access Short Research Article

The Effect of Dash Diet on the Blood Pressure of the Male Hypertensive Office Employees between 33-55 Years of Age

Chetna Rai, Rupali Sengupta

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330259

Aims: To determine the effect of the DASH Diet on the Blood Pressure of the male hypertensive office employees between 33-55 years of age.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Abhitex International Company, Panipat, Haryana, India between November 2018 to January 2019.

Methodology: The Clinical blood pressure of the office employees of Abhitex International company, Panipat, between the age group of 35 to 55 years was recorded, following the international guidelines given by American Heart Association(AHA) and American College of Cardiology. Purposive sampling was done and the employees who had clinical blood pressure above 120/80 mm Hg were considered as the samples for the study. The dietary pattern of the samples was evaluated by checking the adherence to the DASH diet which was done through a questionnaire and 3 days 24-hour diet recall. Dietary adherence was assessed using a scoring scheme adopted by Folsom and colleagues. Samples were made aware of the DASH Diet and post one month the adherence to DASH Diet was again checked and the change in the clinical blood pressure was observed.

Results: There were 50 study participants. The mean age of the participants was 41.5 years. The average Systolic blood pressure of the 50 participants in the pre-test was 149.3 mm of Hg and average diastolic blood pressure was 89.58 mm of Hg. Pre Nutrition Education Program, the total mean DASH adherence score was 4.3 out of 10 but post NEP and after following DASH Diet, the adherence score for the DASH Diet improved and resulted in 6.7 which indicated that the samples adhered more to the DASH Diet post NEP. There were reductions in systolic (149.30±18.98 mmHg to 146.12±14.85 mmHg) and diastolic (89.58±8.76 mmHg to 86.28±4.76 mmHg) blood pressures when the subjects adhered towards the DASH Diet. A significant difference at p=0.05(p=0.039*) in the pre and post-systolic blood pressure was observed in the study. A similar trend was also noticed in the pre and post-diastolic blood pressure which showed a highly significant difference at p=0.05(p=0.002**).

Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that the improvement in the DASH Diet adherence score was associated with a reduction in the Clinical blood pressure. There was a reduction in systolic (149.30±18.98 mmHg to 146.12±14.85 mmHg) and diastolic (89.58±8.76 mmHg to 86.28±4.76 mmHg) blood pressures with an improvement of DASH Adherence Score (4.3±1.27 to 6.7±1.19).

Open Access Original Research Article

Information Needs of Women Regarding Health and Hygiene Practices

Loveleen Kaur, Sukhjeet Kaur, Preeti Sharma

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330257

Information is a source of power and is important for individual growth and survival. Information about health and hygiene is crucial because it influences an individual’s quality of life. As far as health and hygiene practices are concerned, women play an active role in getting information about these; hence there is a need to study their information needs regarding health and hygiene. After finding out the needs of women regarding these aspects, accordingly information can be made accessible to them. Keeping this into account, the present study was conducted in Ludhiana district of Punjab. Data was taken from 200 rural and urban women of 25-50 years, by the help of an interview schedule. Health and hygiene practices were studied under three categories as personal, food related and household health and hygiene practices. Information needs were studied on a three point continuum i.e. highly needed, somewhat needed and not needed. Results of the study showed that under personal health and hygiene practice, information on hair care and obesity was most needed. The most needed information regarding food related health and hygiene was on low cost nutritious recipes. The major information need reported by the respondents was related to control of insects and pests in case of household health and hygiene practices and majority of the respondents had low level of information need for all health and hygiene practices. Information needs of the women were positively related with their education and mass media exposure, whereas age was negatively correlated with the information needs of women. Consequently, there is a need to educate women regarding health and hygiene practices through effective communication methods, so that they can realize the importance and need for information on these topics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Assessment of the Quality of Drinking Water in Households of Abonnema Community

George Boma Orlando, Lawson Stephenson Danagogo, Abiye Tamuno Opubo, Alabere Ibidabo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330258

A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to identify the sources and assess the quality of drinking water in Abonnema Town of Rivers State, Nigeria. A semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and field observation were used to obtain information from 374 respondents on main sources of drinking water, time is taken to collect water from these sources per round trip, availability of main water source, water treatment methods and the sanitary conditions around water sources.  A sample of water was collected from each of the six main water sources and analysed for bacteriological parameters. The most common source of drinking water was well water (42.8%), followed by a borehole (33.7%). Packaged water (bottled and sachet) were the least utilized (8.6%). The majority (87.7%) of the respondents affirmed the constant availability of their main drinking water source and only a small proportion (8.6%) of the respondents spent more than 30 minutes in getting water per round trip. Only a small proportion (12.3%) of respondents practised water treatment. All the wells were in a poor sanitary state. All the samples had total coliform counts above the WHO standard of 0 MPN/100 ml, while 93% of the samples had E. coli counts above the WHO standard of 0 MPN/100 ml. The community had no problems with accessibility and availability of drinking water, but water quality was poor thereby considered unsafe for drinking. The community should be educated on cheap water purification methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Thymus schimperi and Moringa stenopetala on Regional Blood Flow Velocity and Vascular Resistance of Pre-eclampsia Rat Models

Kumlachew Mergiaw, Yoseph A. Mengesha, Eyasu Makonnen, Tesfaye Tolessa, Solomon Genet, Abiy Abebe, Ashenif Tadele, Kidist Gebreyesus, Demeke Ashencho, Asfaw Debella

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330260

Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with a prevalence rate of 3-5%. There is no modern drug which cures PE so far. On the other hand, plant medicines are claimed to cure this disease. Exploring potential plant medicines for their therapeutic and/or prophylactic uses in this disease, therefore has paramount importance. In Ethiopia, there is a strong claim that leaves of Moringa stenopetala and Thymus schimperi have anti-hypertension activities. Thus, the current study was supposed to prove the potential therapeutic effects of the two plants against PE. PE reduces organ blood flow and increasesvascular resistance. Assessing these variables has widely been accepted when monitoring high-risk pregnancies and evaluating therapeutic and/or prophylactic uses of drugs.

Methods: A comparative experimental case control study was employed to determine the effects of aqueous crude extracts of Thymus schimperi and Moringa stenopetala on regional blood flow velocities and vascular resistance of PE Albino-Wistar rat models induced by a potent vasoconstrictor, nitro-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME). A Doppler flow meter (Atys, Directive 93/42/EEC/CEE, Model, BASIC123LP) was used to measure the systolic and diastolic regional blood flow velocities through abdominal aorta, uterine, renal and common carotid arteries.  The peripheral vascular resistance for the respective vessels were evaluated using resistivity and pulsatility indices.

Results: Aqueous leaf extracts of T. schimperi (ALETS) and M. stenopetala (ALEMS) significantly increased regional blood flow velocities and decreased peripheral vascular resistance in PE rat modelsin a dose dependent pattern compared with untreated controls. For example, ALETS treated PE groups showed increased diastolic blood velocity (DBV) (cm/sec) of uterine arteries 3.8±0.4 (p<0.05), 4.2±0.4 (p<0.01), 7.3±0.5 (p<0.01), while ALEMS treated PE group had uterine arterial DBV of 2.8±0.3 (p<0.01), 3.5±0.8 (p<0.05), 6.6±0.8 (p<0.01) with daily doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1 gm/kg, respectively. Moreover, the vascular resistances (measured by resistivity and pulsatility indices), of the respective vessels were significantly lower in a dose dependent pattern.

Conclusion: Both ALETS and ALEMS could increaseregional blood flow velocities and decrease vascular resistances of PE rat models. Further investigation should, however, be carried out to confirm their therapeutic merits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of the Ethanol Extract of Aerial Parts of Diplazium esculentum (Retz) SW. AS Larvicide against Anopheles gambiae Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say

I. A. Umohata, P. M. E. Ubulom, E. J. Udofa, D. N. Bala, I. V. James

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330261

Plant products have been tested as insecticides against mosquitoes as they are promising candidates to replace conventional insecticides. This study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal potential of ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Diplazium esculentum against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Ethanol extract of the aerial parts of D. esculentum was screened for its phytochemical constituents and used for larvicidal assay. A stock solution of the extract (5 g in 100 ml of water) was prepared. From the stock solution, 0.45, 0.60, 0.75, 0.90 and 1.05% w/v concentrations of the extract were obtained for the study. Each concentration of the extract had 3 replicates. The control was also replicated. Twenty (20) third instar larvae each of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were separately exposed to each extract concentration for a duration of 48 hours. Larval nutrient was added to each experimental set up. Observations were made after 24 and 48 hours exposure period. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some plant metabolites. Mortality of larvae exposed to the extract increased with increased concentration and exposure time. This study revealed a differential susceptibility of larvae of the two mosquito species to the extract as evident by the 24 h LC50 values obtained which were 0.355 and 2.468% w/v for An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively. Exposure of An. gambiae larvae to the extract resulted in 100% mortality even with the least concentration of 0.45% w/v after 48 hours exposure period while the highest concentration of extract (1.05% w/v) resulted in 53.33% mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, after an exposure period of 48 hours. Results obtained from this study suggest that the aerial parts of D. esculentum if further explored would be useful in the control of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Immunochromatographic Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Gastritis Patients in Khartoum State-Sudan

Omer Abu Elgasim, Salman Taha Ahmed Elmukashfi, Rayan Abdelwahid Mohammed, Adil Elamin Faroug

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330262

Background: The gold standard for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection requires an endoscopic biopsy of gastric mucosa for histological examination, urease test and culture; however serological tests are useful as a screening test for Helicobacter pylori infection.

Objective: To compare between Immunochromatographic Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay techniques in detection of Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin gamma antibodies in serum of patients suffer from gastritis.

Materials and Methods: 245 patients were screened for Helicobacter pylori infections by rapid urease test. Sera from these patients were tested for anti- Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin gamma antibodies by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Test techniques.

Results: Of 245 patients tested, Immunochromatographic Test positive/negative 114 (46.5%)/131 (53.5%), whereas Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay positive/negative were 124 (50.6%)/121 (49.4%). Sensitivity/ specificity was 67.4%/74.5% and 90.2%/89.3% for Immunochromatographic Test/Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay positive/negative, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 71%/89.7% for Immunochromatographic Test/Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, respectively.

Conclusion: The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was found to be more sensitive, specific and accurate compared to the Immunochromatographic Test while The Immunochromatographic Test is commercially available, inexpensive and easy to perform compared to the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Levels of Subclinical Malaria Infection and Haemolysis among Residents of Opobo, Rivers State, Nigeria

Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Serekara Gideon Christian, Victoria Samuel Jaja, Felix Eedee Konne

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330263

Aim: The study was aimed at evaluating the levels of subclinical malaria infection and haemolysis among the residents of Opobo, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design was used. The subjects were grouped into males and females and comparisons were made between positive and negative subjects of the same gender and positive subjects of different gender.

Place and Duration of Study: The study area was Opobo Town in Opobo/Nkoro Local Government Area of Nigeria. The study was carried out within August 2nd to August 26th, 2019 and a total of 89 apparently healthy subjects were recruited, 35 males and 54 females, aged between 16 – 70 years.

Methodology: Malaria parasite identification was done by thick and thin film using Giemsa’s stain, packed cell volume was by microhaematocrit method, plasma haemoglobin concentration and whole blood haemoglobin concentration was determined by cyanmethaemoglobin method.

Results: The result revealed a total of 24.72% positivity and 75.28% negativity for malaria parasite infection. Among the males, 17.14% positivity and 82.86% negativity for malaria parasite infection were observed while that of the females was 20.37% positivity and 79.63% negativity. In comparison of the studied parameters made between females infected with malaria parasites and those that were not infected with malaria parasites, there was no statistical significant difference at p<0.05 in plasma haemoglobin and percentage haemolysis. In comparison of the studied parameters between males infected with malaria parasites and those not infected with malaria parasites, there was no statistical significant difference in plasma haemoglobin and percentage haemolysis. On gender based comparison, there was also no statistical significant difference in level haemolysis.

Conclusion: The study has revealed a prevalence rate of 24.72% for subclinical malaria infection and the percentage haemolysis of red blood cells in malaria infected subjects residing in Opobo Town compared to subjects without malaria parasite was not statistically significant. Based on gender difference, males were affected more than females, but the level of red blood cell haemolysis was not statistically significant after comparison.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Update on Schistosomiasis: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Risk Factors among School-Aged Children in Njombe, Littoral Region, Cameroon

Cedric Gide Dagang Nzenou, Bonaventure Tientche, Smith Asaah, Takemegni Wandji Jonas Merlin, Martin Kenne

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 63-76
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i330264

Aims: The study aimed to assess an update of the burden of schistosomiasis among primary school children.

Study Design:  The study was a school-based cross-sectional study carried out among children aged between 4 to 15 years old.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in Njombé, Littoral Region, Cameroon from March to April 2017.

Methodology: Urine and stool samples were collected were collected from 412 school-aged children and examined using the urine filtration method and the Kato-Katz technique respectively. A questionnaire was administered to assess their water related activities. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Logistic regression and odds ratio was used to measure association and strength between variables respectively. P-value < .05 at 95% CI was considered as statistically significant.

Results: The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 9.7%, with 7,8% and 1,9% of school children infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.7% co-infection with both species. The intensities of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infection were 2.1 eggs per 10 mL of urine, 94 eggs per gram of stool respectively. The multiple regression analysis revealed that itching after bathing in backwater (Odds ratio (OR)= 2.427, confidence interval (CI): 1.080 - 5454, P=.03). And school children attending EPB Alpha (OR= 2.024), CI: 1.203 – 4.804, P=.011).  were predictors of schistosomiasis infection. However, significant association was found between schistosomiasis and playing in the stream and the presence of the river and back water in the vicinity of schools.

Conclusion: There was a drastic decline in the prevalence of schistosomiasis infection in school children in Njombé compared to previous reports. The decrease is attributed to the bi-annual deworming campaign by the Public Health Authorities.