Open Access Systematic Review Article

Global Disease Outbreaks and Effects on Maternal, Newborn & Child Health in Global South, a Systematic Review

O. Orjingene, N. L. Akondeng, A. Kone-Coulibaly, T. Ogojah, M. Ganama

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1130334

Background/Aim: The world has witnessed several disease outbreaks both in the past and in recent times. Apart from loss of lives as a result of such outbreaks, there are also disruptions in health care provision and utilization due to certain measures aimed at curtailing the spread of such outbreaks. This study aimed to seek evidence from existing literature on the effects of disease outbreaks on maternal, newborn and child health care in Global South.

Methods: A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used and 14 literatures met the inclusion criteria.

Results: HIV/AIDS pandemic affected the Maternal Newborn and Child Health since increased cases of anaemia, hospital admissions, still births in HIV positive pregnant and cases of foetal anaemia reported in infants born from HIV positive pregnant women were reported. No COVID-19 pandemic related-effects on MNCH observed since no maternal deaths and transmission from infected pregnant women to their newborns reported. Indirect effects of pandemics on MNHC include reduced service delivery and demand/utilization as well as inaccessibility due to diverse reasons.

Discussion: The Government should put in place palliative measures for low-income citizens; engage and sensitize women, pregnant women and their children on available health care services and mitigation measures in place to access with minimal or no risk of being infected in a secure environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Age, Health Care and Hygienic Habits on Candida Species Prevalence in the Human Oral Cavity and Genitourinary Tract

Eunice N. Anaele, Josephine I. Okafor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1130330

Aims: The present study examined the influence of age, health care and hygienic habits on the prevalence of Candida species in the human oral cavity and genitourinary tract.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Bishop Shanahan Hospital, Nsukka, between March 2006 and February 2007.

Methodology: Oral and genitourinary samples were collected from 218 individuals (45 males, 173 females) within the ages of 12 and 67 years. Ninety-four of these volunteers responded to the questionnaire on health care and hygienic habits. The clinical specimen collected were cultured for the presence of Candida species. The data obtained were statistically presented as means and percentages.   

Results: Out of 298 samples collected, 61/154 oral (19 males, 42 females) and 53/144 genitourinary (0 male, 53 females) samples yielded growth of Candida species. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Candida species between subjects who use toothpaste and those who use chewing stick for oral hygiene (P=0.93). Respondents who douched were more colonized with Candida 26(39.39%) than those who did not (0%). Species of Candida were significantly associated with the textile material of the undergarment (p = 0.044). Age significantly influenced the prevalence of Candida species in the oral cavity (p < 0.05) but not in the genitourinary tract (p = 0.612).

Conclusion: The study recommends good personal hygiene and health care habits to reduce proliferation of Candida species.


Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Determinants Influencing Cervical Cancer Screening in Buea: A Cross-Sectional Study

C. Neh Fru, Tassang Andrew, F. Nchang Cho, T. Tassang, P. Ngum Fru

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1130331

Introduction: Cervical cancer remains a huge burden in scarce resource communities as Cameroon. The morbidity and mortality are huge, despite the preventable nature of this pathology.

This study set to explore the socio-economic variables which could help influence positively presentation for screening and lessen the pressure on our fragile heath system.

Methodology: A one-day free screening campaign was carried out at the Buea regional hospital on the 2nd of November, 2019. The study population consisted of women aged 16 to 66 years old. After thorough explanation of the exercise to the potential participants to this study, a questionnaire was distributed to them. Assurance was given about the confidentiality of this study, and they were also informed that, they could opt out at any moment, if they so wish.

Results: Some of the socio-economic variables influencing presentation for cervical cancer screening were identified and they seem to modulate individual behaviour towards cervical cancer screening. They were namely: age, level of education, residence, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of pregnancies and number of deliveries.

Conclusion: The key contributors influencing presentation at screening in this study were: age, level of education, residence, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of pregnancies and number of deliveries. Understanding and acting on these variables could help curb down morbidity and mortality, thus alleviating the burden on our fragile heath system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Activity of Some Plants Extracts and Their Partitioned Fractions against Culex quinquefasciatus

Funmilayo G. Famuyiwa, Francis B. Adewoyin, Oluyemi J. Oladiran, Oluwatosin R. Obagbemi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1130332

Aim: The methanol extracts of fifteen plants and their partitioned fractions were screened for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar of larvae Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis with a view to identifying the active ones.

Methodology: The plant parts were collected, separately dried and milled. Each powdered material was extracted in methanol at room temperature for 3 days, with agitation. The extract was filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Each extract was tested against the fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The methanol extracts were suspended in water and successively partitioned into n-hexane and ethylacetate. Each partitioned fraction was also tested against the fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Results: About fifty six percent (56.3%) of the tested extracts had moderate larvicidal activity after 48 hours. The fruit extract of Thevetia neriifolia and the leaf extracts of Calotropis procera and Solanum macrocarpon were the most active. After partitioning the methanol extracts, each of the plant extracts had one or two highly active partitioned fractions after 48 hours. The n-hexane fractions of S. macrocarpon (0.78 ± 0.03 mg/mL) and Spondias mombin (0.81 ± 0.03 mg/mL) were the most active.

Conclusion: The non-polar fractions of S. macrocarpon and S. mombin were the most active. Purification of these highly active fractions could lead to the isolation of potent larvicidal compounds that could be used in the control of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Waterborne Diseases in Bade, Nguru and Machina Local Government Areas of Yobe State-Nigeria

Abubakar Alhaji Ahmed, Yahaya Kafayos

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1130333

Waterborne diseases are mainly caused by consuming food or water tainted with faecal matter or urine of human or animal which contains pathogens. Records have shown that Yobe State is one of the states in Nigeria that have recorded mortalities due to waterborne infections. This study is aimed at identifying common waterborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, infectious hepatitis, giadiasis, amoebiasis, and dracunculiasis between 2017 and 2019 in three local Government Areas (L.G.As) of Yobe State. Personal interview was employed to generate information from the local people on sources of drinking water in three sampled geo – political wards (Bade, Nguru and Machine L.G.As). Results revealed that most of the dwellers in the study area drink from non – potable water sources such as faucets, hand pump, wash boreholes, wells, rivers, pools and creeks. Results also show that people from the study area do not drink potable water. A total of 1204 cholera cases were reported between 2017 and 2019 in the study areas with Machina L.G.A having the highest number of cases (446) representing 37.04% of the total cases. Mortality due to cholera outbreak in all the surveyed LG.As was 124 with Bade L.G.A having the highest number (43) constituting 34.68% of total mortalities in the study areas. A total of 11,938 persons were infected with typhoid during the study period and Nguru L.G.A recorded the highest number of infections (4,438) representing 37.18% of total infections. Gender based percentage prevalence of typhoid in the study is higher in males (52.83%) than females (47.18%). Recommendations on how to overcome the menace have been highlighted.

Open Access Review Article

Risk Factors for Occupational Transmission of Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Zambia

Namaunga Kasumu Chisompola, Kapambwe Mwape Kamanga, Pipina Vlahakis Matafwali

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 59-65
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1130335

Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a critical role in the management and control of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB). At the same time, working in TB healthcare facilities such as hospital wards, diagnostic and treatment facilities increases the risk of acquiring TB due to occupational exposure in HCWs. The risk is further heightened in high TB prevalence populations, such as Zambia, as HCWs are exposed both occupationally and in the community. This review aims to provide a better understanding of the risk factors associated with occupational transmission of TB in HCWs in Zambia, by synthesising available data on TB in HCWs in Zambia and the surrounding region. A search of peer reviewed original research on the transmission of TB among HCWs in Zambia was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar. Studies were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if they described TB amongst HCWs in Zambia, risk factors for TB in HCWs, and nosocomial transmission of TB in Zambia and the surrounding region. The prevalence of TB in HCWs has been demonstrated to be higher than that of the general population. Transmission of TB in healthcare facilities is driven by several factors centred on the lack of adherence to TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. Nosocomial transmission of TB in HCWs is further driven by the HIV epidemic and the rise in lifestyle diseases such as diabetes mellitus. However, there is very scarce data on the association of diabetes mellitus and TB among HCWs in Zambia. Prolonged contact with TB patients on wards has been demonstrated to play a vital role in occupational transmission of TB amongst nurses in Zambia. To curb the transmission of TB in HCWs several measures will require implementation such as; administrative support, IPC training and annual TB and HIV screening for all HCWs.