Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of School Health Services among Senior Secondary School Students in Egor Local Government Area, Benin City, Edo State

Eunice Amaechi Osian, Timothy Aghogho Ehwarieme, Osagumwenro Igbinoba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1230336

Background: The knowledge of school health services among all students in various schools are essential in ensuring that students are equipped with the expected benefits and right attitude of utilizing the services.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and utilization of school health services among senior secondary school students in Egor local government area, Edo State.

Methods: Using a multistage sampling two secondary schools were selected from the thirteen public secondary schools in the Egor LGA and a sample size of 274 using Taro Yamane formula. A self-structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.82 which show that the instrument was reliable. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation Coefficient at 5% significant level.

Results: Findings showed that majority 150(57.6%) of the respondents have good knowledge of school health services, 80(30.5%) have fair knowledge while 31(11%) have poor knowledge.  All the respondents have a positive attitude toward school health services with an average grand mean of 3.078±0.428. However, 113.2(43.4%) have poor utilization of the school health services, 40(15.3%) have moderate while 107.8(41.3%) have high utilization. Positive correlation (p =0.01) was found between knowledge and utilization of school health services. Significant difference was found (p= 0.002; ˂0.05) in the utilization of school health services between male and female students.

Conclusion: Government should ensure adequate provision of facilities, inspection and supervision of the school health services. Sensitization/Awareness campaign of school health services should be made available to all school children in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Changes in HCV Patients Treated with Different Sofosbuvir-Based Regimens

Ahmed Abdel Khalek, Abdel Raouf El-Deib, Gamal Tawfik, Nashaat Soliman, Mohamed Mosaad

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1230337

Introduction: Treatment of HCV with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) with the different regimen dramatically changed the outcomes of the disease beside its eradication. In the same time hematological concerns as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia were a major factor before initiation, or during treatment with the antiviral drugs.

Aim: To demonstrate hematological changes during and after treatment with different regimen of DAAs.

Methods: Follow up the hematological changes before, during and after treatment for 100 patients with chronic HCV treated with five different sofosbuvir-based regimen; using interferon, ribavirin, simeprevir and daclatasvir.

Results: There are no similar linear changes regarding anemia, leucopenia or thrombocytopenia, however, combination therapy using sofosbuvir with simeprevir or daclatasvir significantly increase platelets count, WBCs, and hemoglobin level during and after end of treatment, versus regimens uses sofosbuvir with ribavirin and or interferon that showed significantly decreased hematological values during and after treatment.

Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based regimen has favorable hematological changes in patients with chronic HCV infection during and after treatments especially with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Maseru, Lesotho

Azubuike Benjamin Nwako, Okechukwu Francis Nwako, Magaret-Lorritta Chidimma Nwako

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 31-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1230339

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of low birth weight and factors that could be associated with low birth weight in a tertiary hospital in Maseru.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Queen Mamohato Memorial Hospital, Maseru, Lesotho, February to May, 2016.

Methods: The mothers who participated were 402 with age range of 15 to 48 years. The study included 412 newborns. Direct measurement of variables was complemented with questionnaire-derived data. There was re-categorization of primary variables. Associations between low birth weight and maternal and newborn characteristics were assessed with multiple logistic regression with a 95% confidence level.

Results: The prevalence of low birth weight was high at 25% out of the 412 newborns. Multivariate analysis suggested that multiple gestations POR=26.39 (95% CI 5.29-131.75), preterm delivery POR=11.64 (95% CI 5.88-23.04), use of unclean energy POR=6.14 (95% CI 2.72-13.85), hypertension POR=3.48 (95% CI 1.70-7.11), HIV POR=2.08 (95% CI 1.07-4.08) and a low paid job POR =2.35 (95% CI 1.08-5.10) were independently associated with low birth weight.

Conclusion: Preventing low birth weight could be addressed by early detection and prompt treatment of hypertension and human immunodeficiency virus infection, and by implementing strategies to prevent premature births.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parallel and Concurrent Infection of Dengue Virus and Plasmodium falciparum among Patients with Febrile Illnesses Attending Bingham University Health Centre, Karu, Nigeria

Nanret Kyeswet Suchi, Haruna Isa Mohammed, Adegbite Olutunde Ademola, Pennap Grace Rinmecit

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1230340

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the parallel and concurrent infection of dengue virus and Plasmodium falciparum among patients with febrile illnesses attending Bingham University Health Centre, Karu, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi and 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Yaba-Lagos, between February and July 2017.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 400 patients with febrile illnesses at the University Health Centre. The resulting sera was screened for dengue virus seromarkers (IgM, IgG and NS1) using Aria Dou dengue virus RDT kits (CTK Biotech, Inc, San Diego, USA) while malaria parasitemia was detected by Giemsa stained thick and thin film microscopy. Data collected were analysed using Smith’s Statistical Package (version 2.8, California, USA) and P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Of the 400 patients screened, 12(3.0%) were positive for dengue virus, 20(5.0%) for malaria parasite while 10(2.5%) for dengue/malaria co-infection. Infection with dengue virus and malaria parasite was found to be higher among female subjects aged ≤30 years. However, age and gender were not significantly associated with both infections in this study (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the presence of dengue virus infection in the study area which probably may have been misdiagnosed and mistreated. Hence, differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses should not only be limited to malaria and typhoid as is always the case in our health care centres.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health and Disease among Primary School Children: A Snapshot from Rural Bangladesh

Md. Abdullah Al Farooq, Mohammad Nazmul Haq, Tania Tajreen, Md. Minhajuddin Sajid, Tanvir Kabir Chowdhury

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 52-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1230341

Aims: There is scarcity of research on the health and disease status of primary school children in Bangladesh. This study aimed at assessing prevalence of medical diseases and surgical conditions among rural primary school children.

Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in 2018 on 2 public and 2 private primary school children in Bakila and Gogra village of Chandpur district. History of immunization, deworming, major current or previous illness, allergy, trauma, surgery and drug history were recorded. Anthropometric measurements, milestones of development, body build and nutritional status; and other general and systemic examinations were carried out. Comparison was made between the public and private primary school students.

Results: 227 primary school children (99 public school students and 128 private school students), were evaluated. Median age was 7 years and male to female ratio was 1.39:1. At least one medical disease or surgical condition was present in 146 (64.3%) students. Medical disease was present in 114 (50.2%) and surgical condition was present in 40 (17.6%) children. About 96.48% children completed immunization and 76.65% children were having regular deworming. Overall, 19.38% children were underweighted and 24.23% children were stunted. Bronchial asthma was the most common medical disease (11.89%), followed by rhinitis (8.37%) and food allergy (5.73%). Dental caries was the most common surgical condition, followed by tonsillitis (4.41%) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), 2.64%.

Conclusion: A diverse medical diseases and surgical conditions were prevalent among primary school children and most of these are preventable. These did not vary significantly between public and private schools.

Open Access Review Article

Malaria: Trend of Burden and Impact of Control Strategies

Emmanuel Ikechukwu Nnamonu, Pamela Amarachi Ndukwe-Ani, Cyril Ali Imakwu, Clara Ifeoma Okenyi, Felix Joel Ugwu, Maduabuchi Isaac Aniekwe, Solomon Ikechukwu Odo, Samuel Uchechukwu Ezenwosu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1230338

Since antiquity, malaria had plagued humans claiming millions of lives annually around the world. In addition to its health toll, billions of dollars are lost every year to the exorbitant cost of treatment, premature death, loss of opportunities, capital intensive public health and government interventions to curb the menace. This had intensified global malaria eradication efforts over the last few decades leading to the successful elimination of the disease from most developed countries drastically reducing global malaria mortality to hundreds of thousands yearly. Still, developing countries of the world especially those in tropical Africa remain the worst hit and children are the most vulnerable group generally accounting for > 50% of all malaria mortality. The world actually experienced a giant leap forward between 2000 and 2015 when global malaria mortality rate declined by a remarkable 25% and by a significant 69% in children less than five. Also, during this period a staggering 70% of malaria cases were averted due to strengthened malaria intervention. Some of this step forward was also attributed to increasing urbanization and overall economic development across the nation’s leading to improved housing and nutrition. However, years later, progress has been relatively slower and seemed to have stalled. Nonetheless, the impacts of control strategies have saved millions of lives universally. But to save more lives and eliminate malaria from highest risk countries like in tropical Africa, more efforts are required at both international and national capacity through the funding of research and malaria projects, effective surveillance and response, strengthened health system and mosquito vector control strategies, and development of new, improved antimalarial intervention tools like diagnostics, prophylactics, therapeutics and vaccines. Also, the role of human activity and lifestyle in the fight against malaria cannot be overemphasized.