Open Access Case Study

Amoebic Colitis Presenting as Subacute Intestinal Obstruction with Perforation

Renuka Verma, Archana Budhwar, Priyanka Rawat, Niti Dalal, Anjali Bishlay, Sunita Singh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 58-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630367

Infestation with Entamoeba histolytica is worldwide, especially in developing areas. Presented case study included amoebic colitis in a 45 years old man complaining of abdominal distension and non-passage of stools since three days. Abdominal region was diffusely distended and tender in right iliac fossa. Plain abdominal radiography revealed prominent gut loops and minimal intergut free fluid. At laparotomy, malrotation of gut was present. Histopathological examination of intestinal samples confirmed final diagnosis of amoebic colitis post-operatively.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional Epidemiological Survey on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene amongst Residents of Bamboutos Division, West Region Cameroon: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Study

R. Lontuo- Fogang, V. Khan Payne, Saah Fokou Cedric, H. Ntangmo Tsafack, R. Bamou

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630359

Background: Although Cameroon is the second country in Africa after the Democratic Republic of Congo in terms of water availability, access to good drinking water constitutes an every day’s struggle. A household survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices among households during collection, storage and preservation of potable water and evaluate some general hygiene/sanitation practices employed at the household level on daily basis in Bamboutos Division.

Methods: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in April 2019 in two Sub-Divisions of the Bamboutos Division. Respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Results: Out of the 460 households interviewed, 85.09% (n=371) could cite only one waterborne diseases with typhoid taking the lead (n=331; 89.22%); followed by cholera (n=191; 51.48%) and dysenteries (n=154; 41.51%). Most residents (n=361; 79%) had poor knowledge and practices on waterborne diseases when classified in to good/poor. Several water sources were declared by residents for drinking purposes with the springs (50%), wells (35%) and boreholes (30%) as their main sources while others (35%) mentioned rain water during the rainy season. Knowledge and practices in the prevention of WBD were found to be associated to education level while water source was found to predispose people to suffer from WBD. Most participants (n=452; 98.26%) said they washed their hands before and after eating (98.26%) and after visiting the toilets (n=358; 77.82%) with water and soap (n=403; 87.60%).

Conclusion: The study indicated poor knowledge on WBD and poor practices in their prevention in Bamboutos Division. The use of a variety of water sources for drinking purposes implies that access to good quality water is a nightmare for the population of Bamboutos. Hence measures have to be put in place for the assessment of water quality and ensure the availability of potable water to everyone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Infection and Efficacy of Antimalarials among Persons Patronizing Drugstores for Malaria Treatment in Port Harcourt

E. L. Augustine–D ’israel, A. E. Abah, E. O. Onosakponome

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630361

Background: Monitoring of malaria infection and antimalarial drug efficacy is necessary for effective case management, detection of resistance and control of the disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess malaria infection and the efficacy of antimalarials among persons patronizing drugstores for malaria treatment in Port Harcourt and its environs, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Whole blood was randomly collected from individuals visiting 24 drug stores for malaria treatment in three different locations in Port Harcourt and analysed using both microscopy and rapid diagnostic techniques.

Results: The overall prevalence of 22.8% was recorded out of 633 participants for (P. falciparum) malaria. Infection was highest in Mile IV (Rumueme) 30.8% followed by Rumuosi, 23.1% and the least was D/Line area, 14.5% out of 221 participants per location respectively. The incidence of malaria in the study area was significantly different (X2 = 16.69; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the intensity of malaria parasite infection in the study areas. Seven types of drugs were purchased to treat perceived malaria. 177 (26.7%) participants purchased coatem, 187 (28.3%) purchased Lonart. The others were Lumartem 133 (20.1%), P.alaxin 83 (12.5%), Amarla by 19 (2.9%) and artesunate by 57 (8.6%). All the antimalarial were purchased by those that tested positive. The most purchased drug was Lonart 11 (34.37%), Lumartem 25 (36.8%) and Malareich 19 (31.3%) in D/Line, Mile IV and Rumuosi cluster areas respectively. There was a significant difference in the antimalarials purchased. Result of Follow up test shows that only 59.6% returned to be tested and they all tested negative.

Conclusion: Malaria preponderance was high among studied subjects, ACT was topmost among antimalarials regularly purchased by the individuals. Conformity to the use of ACT could be said to be impressive though not yet 100%. People who are treated for malaria should be encouraged to undergo a test after treatment for effective case management and detection of resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening among Rural Women in Imo State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Ugonma Winnie Dozie, Chikere Ifeanyi Casmir Ebirim, Ijeoma Christabel Ekeh, Chinelo Judith Ezelote, Okorie Onyinye Mary, Nneka Eleano Asuzu, Ikechukwu Nosike Simplicius Dozie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630362

Introduction: Breast cancer is among the leading causes of death among women globally. Its mortality and morbidity are highest in Africa despite the low prevalence. Sadly, breast screening has never been taking seriously in this region thus rendering management of the disease difficult. The study is designed to determine the knowledge and practice of breast screening among rural women in Imo State, Nigeria.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted using a multi-stage sampling technique to select 258 women from a sampled households. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using mean scores and percentages.

Results: The result showed that 87.3% of the women was aware of breast cancer and the dominant sources of information on the disease were radio/television (91.0%), internet (88.0%), friends (85.0%) and newspapers/magazines (79.0%). It was further found that most (83.7%) of the women knew that breast cancer affected only the breast, 76.7% knew that breast cancer can be detected by breast self-examination and screening. Also, 96.1% of the women knew that breast cancer affects only women while 84.9% knew it can only be detected in the hospital/clinic. On the practice of breast screening, the majority (79.5%) of the women indicated they had not been screened whereas only 5.0% had been screened. However, the result revealed that breast self-examination (92.3%) was the most popular screening method among the women followed by clinical breast examination (7.8%).  It was also found that 79.5% of the women had been screened more than once in a year whereas 15.5% were not sure the number of times they had been screened.

Conclusion: The study concludes, that in spite of the awareness and high knowledge of breast cancer and importance of screening in the area, the practice of breast screening among the women was very low. It is therefore, recommended sensitization campaigns on breast screening be intensified in rural areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Performance-based Financing on the Coverage of Antenatal Care and Immunization Services in Buea Health District, Cameroon

Betrand Ekenja, Finley Mbah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 31-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630363

Introduction and Aim: Financing healthcare is a major factor in our society today which affects access to quality healthcare. The MDGs reached their deadline in 2015 but progress has been insufficient with reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of diseases. The healthcare system of Cameroon is characterized by low coverage for preventive care services. Innovative ways must be identified to fast track the coverage of MCH services. Lack of incentives affects the coverage of ANC and immunization services. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PBF on the coverage of ANC and immunization services.

Methods: An experimental study design was used and health facilities in the Buea Health District were randomly selected and assigned to one of four groups, three intervention groups (T1, C1 and C2) and one control group (C3). Using multistage sampling, a total of 434 postpartum mothers and 474 children participated in the study. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used and data was analyzed using EPI Info version 3.5.4 and STATA version 10.1 statistical software.

Results: The mean age of the 434 postpartum mothers was 26.03. Supervision alone had significant effect on the four or more ANC visits (p=0.04). Both financing and supervision had statistically significant effect on the four or more ANC visits (p=0.003) and immunization. Financing and fixed per capita budgetary supplement did not have a significant effect on the coverage of ANC and immunization services.

Conclusion: Both Financing and enforced supervision is necessary in order to improve the coverage of ANC and immunization services thus accelerating progress towards improving MCH.

Open Access Review Article

Age Pattern Related Moribity and Mortality among COVID-19 Patients: Indian Chapter

Adiesh Sood

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 45-57
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630366

The COVID-19 till date has groped in around million lives across the globe that includes children and elderly who became a victim of this pandemic. During course of this pandemic, there has been discussion of age related vulnerability to the disease and the preventive measures and policies implemented by various countries across the globe. The elderly have suffered a disproportionate burden of COVID-19. Patients associated co-morbidities pose a greater threat to that group as compared to general population. The epidemiological data and Case Fatality Ratio (CFR) collected from countries vary significantly but give a vivid picture of the situation of the pandemic in each region. Hence, the author reviewed the published data from several countries to investigate relationship between age and COVID-19 mortality and morbidity. The author also took the time to study briefly about the role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor against the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The author also reviewed the literature for studies explaining the difference in the physiological inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection according to age.

Thus, the information achieved from these data will prove to be useful in determining the precautionary and preventive policies irrational treatment of COVID-19.