Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Diarrhea Causing Organisms (Salmonella and Shigella) from Selected Seafood

Owhorchukwu Amadi- Wali, Chinyere Amadi- Wali, Allwell Sunny Njigwum

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1730369

Aims: The study investigated the presence of entities causing diarrhea (Shigella & Salmonella) from some selected seafood.

Study Design:  The study adopted a completely randomized experimental Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Microbiology, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), between January 2020 and February 2020.

Methodology: Simple random technique was employed to collect sufficient quantities of five different fresh raw seafoods (shrimp, periwinkle, crab, sardine fish and mudskipper) across fish harbors and fish markets (Nembe waterside, Abonema Wharf and 1 Fish Market) in Port Harcourt, and were evaluated for bacteriological quality. Sample collection was a cross-sectional type. The isolation and identification of isolates were done according to standard bacteriological analytical methods. The study employed Frequency counts, percentages and one- way ANOVA statistics, and the analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Although, one-way ANOVA statistics was used to test the hypothesis of the study at 0.05 level of significance, while Tukey’s test was used for ranking means.

Results: The finding showed that 53 percent of the isolates (i.e. 8 out of 15 isolates) were characterized as Salmonella and Shigella. Also, the result shows that all the seafood evaluated contain unacceptable levels of Salmonella and Shigella contamination, which ranged from 1.79 x107 CFU/g to 2.96 x107CFU/g. The level of contamination found in the selected seafood is shown in descending order from the highest to the lowest: Sardine> Periwinkle> Shrimps> Mudskipper> Crab. More so, result from the hypothesis showed that there was a significant mean difference in the Salmonella and Shigella count amongst selected seafood (P < .001).

Conclusion: The results of this study constitute an indicator of fecal contamination in selected seafood from fish markets in Port Harcourt. Amongst others, it was recommended that Government should enforce laws discouraging the dumping of untreated waste into water bodies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-demographic Differentials in the Knowledge of E-Health Care Delivery among Health Care Professionals in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

C. L. Kpe- Nobana, C. E. Elechi, C. O. Aleke

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1730370

Background: The emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in developing countries including Nigeria underscores the need for electronic health (e-Health) to improve health care delivery. This study thus determined the knowledge and socio-demographic differentials in the knowledge of e-Health care delivery among health care professionals in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakalik (FETHA) Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Methods: The descriptive research design and a self-developed questionnaire was used for the study. Three objectives with three research questions and two null –hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Out of a population of 2092 health workers in FETHA, 209 representing 10% were drawn through a multistage sampling technique and were studied. Frequency and percentage were used to answer research question one, while mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions two and three. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in testing null hypotheses one while Mann-Whitney U test was used in testing hypotheses two at .05 level of significance.

Results: The overall mean percentage of respondents was 85.6% which indicates that health care professionals in FETHA possessed a good knowledge of e-Health care delivery. The findings further indicated that health care professional in FETHA differed in their level of education with diploma and below possessing higher knowledge of e-Health care delivery (x̅=1.23) than those with B.Sc. and above (x̅=1.14). Also differed by their age (P>0.05), and level of education (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Nigerian government at all levels, through their various Ministries of Health should organize intensive ICT training and retraining of their employees, especially those with B.Sc and above.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Cellular Changes Associated with Bacteremia and Malaria Co-morbidity among Children in Western, Kenya

Godfrey Ogulla, Stephen Mwalimu, Margaret Muturi, Collins Ouma

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1730371

Background: Malaria and bacteremia co-morbidity in children cause changes in blood cellular components. Complete blood count from children whose haemoglobin genotypes and bacteremia tests are not known, greatly influence clinical management and interpretation of the haematology results in resource limited healthcare facilities.

Objectives: We investigated cellular components from children with bacteremia and malaria co-morbidity. We also analysed the haemoglobin genotypes and bacteria isolates from children with haemoglobin AA, SS and AS in western Kenya.

Methods: A total number of 384 children were recruited and complete blood counts done with an automated cell counter. Microscopy was used to determine malaria infections, while bacteremia was determined by blood culture. The haemoglobin genotypes were analysed using the electrophoresis technique.

Results: Children with haemoglobin AA and AS had elevated granulocyte counts. Most of the bacteria isolates were from children with malaria and haemoglobin AS. The bacteria isolated from blood culture included non-typhi salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes and Viridans.

Salmonella species and staphylococcus aureus were the most prevalent bacteria isolates associated with bacteremia in children with haemoglobin AS and malaria positive.

Conclusion: Children with Hb AS have higher chances of malaria and bacterial co-infection which leads to lymphocytopenia, erythrocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Bacteria responsible for most of malaria co-infections in this region are Salmonella species and Staphylococcus aureus. The malaria and bacterial co-infection in pre-school children initiate differential cellular changes which should be investigated further.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypertension in the Workplace: Study among Workers in an Oil Production Company in Pointe-Noire (Congo)

Ebenguela Ebatetou Ataboho, Patricia Atipo- Galloye, Donatien Moukassa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1730372

Hypertension is a real public health problem in the world. The almost rare data on hypertension in the Congolese oil sector led us to carry out this study.

Objective: Describe the epidemiological profile of the hypertensive worker in a Congolese oil production company in the city of Pointe-Noire.

Methodology: This is an observational study, descriptive cross in collection of retrospective data, which involved 815 workers. After informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to workers whose variables such as weight, height, and blood pressure were taken. Statistical analysis was carried out using the EPI-INFO 7 software.

Results: The prevalence of hypertension in workers was 16.3%, i.e. 18.0% in men and 8.0% in women with a significant difference (p <0.05). 25.8% of hypertensive workers were obese and 19.0% overweight. Obese workers were approximately 5 times more vulnerable than others to hypertension, and this was significantly (p <0.001). Risk factors such as age, gender and BMI and diabetes have been significantly associated with hypertension. The older the worker, the more there was an increased risk of developing hypertension (p <0.001). However, other factors such as sports activity and smoking were not significantly related to hypertension (p ˃ 0.05).

Conclusion: Hypertension is a worrying pathology among workers in an oil company in Congo. It would be imperative to strengthen communication with employees with the aim of raising awareness and changing behavior.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Soil Transmitted Helminths in Children from Bandjoun, the West Region of Cameroon

Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Peter Nejsum, Dzune Fossouo Dirane Cleopas, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Atiokeng Tatang Rostand Joël, Mpoame Mbida

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1730373

Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) continue to be a public health problem in developing countries. In Bandjoun, annual deworming is usually administered to school-age children through the national programme for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Cameroon. However, official data on the level of STH infections are scarce in this locality.

Methods: We investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs among children in Bandjoun with the intention to help design future intervention plans. We obtained demographic data and potential risk factors through the interview of children using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples from these children were collected and examined for helminth eggs using Willis’ technique.

Results: Three STHs were identified with an overall prevalence of 8.7%. These nematodes were Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%) and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus) (0.7%). Failure to wash hands before meals (AOR: 2.152 [1.056-4.389]) was the main predictor associated with Ascaris infections. Not eating food picked up from the ground (AOR: 0.494 [0.261-0.937]) and not raising pigs at home (AOR: 0.109 [0.045-0.268]) reduced risk of infection.

Conclusion: We recommend that STHs control interventions in Bandjoun focus on the good management of domesticated pigs, the avoidance of contact with soil and handwashing from the earliest ages as a part of daily hygiene practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Behaviour against COVID 19 and Telemedicine Use among the Pregnant Women during Pandemic Period: A Cross Sectional Study

S. Anil Bindu Sukumaran, L. Manju, Divija Vijith, Regi Jose, Meghana Narendran, Susanna John, P V. Benny

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1730374

Even though pregnant women are more prone to have severe COVID 19, few studies have been conducted on their protective behaviours against this disease in our country during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fear of getting COVID infection may prevent antenatal women from visiting hospitals for routine antenatal checkups and utilization of telemedicine may be an alternative to get connected with their health care providers during the pandemic.

Aims: To evaluate the protective behaviour adopted by pregnant women during the COVID pandemic and their utilization of teleconsultation for antenatal care.

Methods: A cross- sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending three selected hospitals in Trivandrum District in Kerala during May to August 2020. The data was collected from a random sample of 252 pregnant women registered in these hospitals using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire.

Results: Around 89% of pregnant women had adopted good practice to protect themselves against the COVID 19. About 94% wore a mask whenever they went outside. About 72% completely avoided crowded place. About 72% had rated themselves to have good or very good knowledge regarding protective measures of COVID 19. Among the pregnant women, 61(24.2%) missed their scheduled antenatal visit once, 32(12.7%) missed twice and 8(3.2% missed three or more times during the pandemic period. Half of the pregnant women utilized telemedicine facility during the pandemic to stay connected with their doctors. But 31% were not aware of telemedicine facility in hospitals, while 1.6% does not have an internet access. Higher age group, current employment status and area of residence was found to be associated with poor practice.

Conclusions: Nearly 89% pregnant women adopted good protective measures against COVID19. Measures need to be taken to improve the availability of telemedicine facility in hospitals for antenatal women and to improve awareness about it among public which may help the antenatal women to stay connected with their health care providers during this pandemic.