Open Access Case Study

Spontaneous Pregnancy after Bilateral Tubal Ligation: A Rare Occurance

K. Tunau, S. Bello, A. Panti, S. Alabi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 47-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1830381

Bilateral tubal ligation is a form of female sterilization. It is the most commonly used method of family planning worldwide and it is a permanent method of fertility control. However the failure rate is 0.1 – 0.8%.

A case report of a booked Gravida 5, Para 3+1, Alive 3 who had two previous Caesarean Sections and a previous Uterine Rupture is presented. She had a Bilateral Tubal Ligation (BTL) performed. She however presented six years after this with a spontaneous pregnancy. She presented in the first trimester, the pregnancy was followed up and she eventually had elective caesarean section and repeat bilateral tubal ligation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Online Learning Using Google Classroom: Undergraduate Medical Students and Paediatric Residents Perspectives in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

I. E. Yarhere, I. O. Obuzor, E. Fomsi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1830376

Schools in Nigeria were shut down and lectures stopped altogether. The capacity of the Nigerian educational environment to carry out these online interactions may be stretched thin with many foreseeable challenges.

Objectives: To identify the current familiarity and use of online classroom platforms by medical students and Paediatric residents, and to identify the barriers to its use for medical education.

Methods: A descriptive comparative study design using a semi-structured online questionnaire Google survey of 128 medical students and residents in training in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital assessing demographics, availability of tools for online learning and application.

Results: Both groups had high familiarity, but low use, of Google classroom, and preferred mobile devices to laptops. There was high familiarity 90.6%, but low use 42.2%, of Google classroom and the ease of using Google classroom for interphasing or interacting between learners and facilitators was affected by Internet availability, Pearson correlation, 0.185, p = 0.037, but not electric power availability, Pearson correlation, 0.135, p = 0.133.

Conclusions: There is an overall high awareness of a range of the Google classroom LMS platform by both medical students and residents. However, constant electric energy supply, availability of internet and competence in preparing multimedia presentations and uploading these for assessment may enhance the use of online learning platforms in Nigeria for undergraduate and post graduate medical education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yulin Children's Hospital's Response to COVID-19 Epidemic Prevention and Control Measures and Effects

Li Huirong

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1830377

Objective: Introduce the prevention and control measures and effects during COVID-19, and provide a basis for strengthening the emergency response ability of children's hospitals to respond to public health emergencies.

Methods: Introduced the epidemic prevention and control measures of the Children's Hospital of Yulin City, Shaanxi Province from January 22 to July 31, and summarize the prevention and control effects

Results: During this period, according to the relevant national guidelines and regulations, the hospital established a reasonable hospital management model, formulated scientific prevention and control plans, and introduced effective prevention and control measures, realizing zero infection among front-line medical workers, zero spread of the epidemic in the hospital, and zero death among confirmed patients in the hospital.

Conclusion: The prevention and control work of Yulin Children's hospital has comprehensive overall deployment and effective prevention and control measures, which has certain reference significance for the prevention and control work of large comprehensive children's specialized hospitals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Eating Behaviors of Pregnant and Lactating Women on the Nutritional Status of Children under 6 Months in the Lake-Chad Region

Abdel-Aziz Ousmane Mahamat, Marie Modestine Kana Sop, Himeda Makhlouf, Marlyne-Joséphine Mananga

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 24-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1830378

Background: Malnutrition causes real problems, especially for the survival and growth of children on the one hand and for the health of pregnant and lactating women on the other.

Purpose: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the impact of pregnant and lactating women's eating behaviors on the nutritional status of children under 6 months in the Lake Chad Region.

Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study of 380 patients including 106 pregnant women 137 lactating women and 137 children under 6 months of age identified in few hospitals and health centers in the Lake Chad Region was conducted from October 1 to November 30, 2017, using a questionnaire administered to pregnant and lactating women after their consent. The 24-hour recall and the frequency of consumption of the food groups allowed us to evaluate the food intake of the surveyed women. The nutritional status of mothers and children was assessed by anthropometric and biochemical measures. The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 20 software. The Chi-square test allowed us to establish the correlations between the different variables at a significance level set at 5%.

Results: This study found that only 8.5% and 10.9% of pregnant and lactating women respectively had satisfactory dietary diversity scores. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was 11.7% and the immediate initiation rate for breastfeeding after delivery was 50.4%. The children had 19% wasting, 31.4% stunting, 34.3% underweight and 56.4% anemia. Respectively, 34% and 29% of pregnant and lactating women were malnourished; 17% and 10.2% were at risk of malnutrition, with 60.6 % and 50% prevalence of anemia respectively.

Conclusion: The modifiable factors that significantly influenced the nutritional status of children were: maternal feeding behaviors such as low dietary diversity scores and daily meals lack of hygiene and sanitary follow-up, underweight and presence of children anemia in mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Oral Artemisinin and Praziquantel Chemotherapy on Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice by Means of Parasitological Parameters

Nassar, Adebayo Sulaiman, Bakarey, Adeleye Solomon, Abdulazeez, Abubakar Aderemi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1830380

Aim: Praziquantel-based chemotherapy is generally effective in the control of morbidity, decline in the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infections. Nevertheless, the potential emergence of praziquantel resistance in S. mansoni posses danger in the elimination of this neglected tropical disease in Africa. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of Praziquantel and Artemisinin using mice infected with S. Mansoni cercariae.

Methods: Infected mice with S. mansoni were treated with different doses of Artemisinin and Praziquantel from day 42 post infection to assess its efficacy on adult worms and eggs. A 2-day Protocol: artemisinin 400 mg/kg with Praziquantel of 500 mg/kg daily, 4-day protocol: artemisinin 200 mg/kg with praziquantel of 250 mg/kg daily, 6-day protocol: artemisinin 100 mg/kg with praziquantel of 125 mg/kg daily were used. A value of p <0.05 was considered as the level of significance using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21.

Results: Of the 150 snails collected, 60(40%) were confirmed to be Biomphalaria, while 50(33.3%) and 40(26.3%) were Bulinus and Intercalatum respectively. Highest reduction of 66.3% was found in group II, compared with 58.8% and 56.5% significant reductions in groups I and III, respectively. Also, there were 77.8% and 74.2% significant reductions in eggs per gram of the small intestinal tissue noted in groups I and II respectively as against 63.1% reduction in group III. A significant decline in the percentage of total immature stages of 6.14% in group I was observed when compared to 66.14% in the control. Furthermore, a statistically significant boost of 57.57% was found in the protocol of Artemisinin 100 mg/kg with Praziquantel 125 mg/kg daily (6-day protocol) causing decreases of 43.9% and 42.4% in the total and female worm loads, respectively. The combination decreased intestinal tissue egg loads ranging from 63.1% to 77.8% and liver egg loads ranging from 56.5% to 66.3% rates.

Conclusion: Combined effect of the drugs has confirmed some level of efficacy on experimental S.  Mansoni with significant reduction in tissue egg burden.

Open Access Review Article

A Critical Review of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) during Pregnancy & Risk of Vertical Transmission in the United States

Zebi Fatima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1830375

Since December 2019, people around the world have been affected by a pandemic disease caused by a novel type of betacoronavirus. It can lead to severe contagious respiratory illness. The experts are concerned about the effects of this novel virus on both the mother and their fetuses. This review is to identify strategies for the obstetric management of women diagnosed with COVID-19 and the best neonatal care for their newborns.

We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, ELSEVIER and CDC web page and included the articles published from December 2019 through July 2020. Inclusion criteria were original articles published between December 2019 and July 2020 and Meta-Analysis, Reviews and, Systematic Reviews.

Regarding vertical transmission, several studies concluded that there is no evidence for intrauterine vertical transmission of COVID-19 from infected mothers to their babies. Pregnant women with COVID-19 might develop more severe respiratory complications. After delivery, women with COVID-19 can transmit the virus to their babies through respiratory droplets during breastfeeding or care, so experts recommend to adopt hygienic measures.

The current information shows that COVID-19 infection apparently is not associated with greater severity of the disease in pregnant women than in the general population. However, the data is minimal, and that represents a challenge for the obstetric care providers.