Open Access Case Report

A Report of Unprovoked Bilateral Epistaxis in Patient with Covid-19: Our Experience

Ferguson Ayemere Ehimen, Iboro Samuel Akpan, Oluwafemi Emmanuel Abidoye, Omobamidele Benson Betiku, Kayode Olanrewaju

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2030394

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease that was first reported in China in 2019. Since it was reported, it has resulted to close to nine hundred thousand deaths globally. The symptoms and signs of COVID-19 continue to evolve on a daily basis, therefore a knowledge of the common symptoms and other new symptoms is key to early diagnosis and control of this disease. In this report, we present a 30 year-old COVID-19 female patient, who presented with acute unprovoked epistaxis, a week after onset of symptoms (cough, malaise, fatigue) of COVID-19. Considering the evolving symptoms of COVID-19, health care personnel are advised to consider the possibility of COVID-19 in patients presenting with atypical symptoms like sudden unprovoked epistaxis especially during the pandemic period.

This report further strengthens the need for more large inter-country studies to be done to completely highlight and harmonize the varying and evolving symptoms of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reduction of Malaria by Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in Potiskum, Yobe State, Nigeria

Audu Ali, Aminu Y. Bala, Elijah S. Okwuonu, Chinemerem H. Orakwelu, Ifeanyi O. Aguzie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2030388

Aims: The study was conducted to assess prevalence of malaria pre- and post-distribution of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in Potiskum Local Government Area, Yobe State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Retrospective and cross-sectional.

Place of Study: Potiskum Local Government Area, Yobe State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Prevalence of malaria infection in ten political wards pre-distribution of ITNs was investigated using secondary data sources from Roll Back Malaria and Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response offices. Thin and thick blood smears used to evaluate malaria prevalence post-distribution of ITNs were prepared from blood samples of 520 patients seeking medical attention from the General Hospital, Potiskum. Questionnaires were also handed out to the same set of patients.

Results: Prevalence of malaria infection pre- and post-distribution of ITNs in the study area was 57.9% and 22.9% respectively. Respondents to the questionnaire (n = 216) had mosquito nets, of whom 85% owned long-lasting ITNs and the remaining, conventional nets, but 35% used ITNs in their homes and 63% of those owning ITNs received them free-of-charge from local health centers.

Conclusion: If the impact of ITNs as an effective malaria vector control measure must be sustained, there should be a corresponding awareness program, which should be aimed at encouraging proper and constant use of ITNs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Empowerment in Health: An Exploratory Study in Rural Community of a District of West Bengal

Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu Mukhopadhyay, Nivedita Das, Tarun Kumar Sarkar, Fasihul Akbar, Palash Das

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2030389

Background: Community empowerment is the process and outcome where community itself is able to identify, prioritize health problems and address them. It has been considered as the key strategy for scalability and sustainability of health services.

Objectives: To explore the status of community empowerment in health in rural areas in West Bengal, India and the interplay of different stakeholders.

Methods: A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted in 2017 – 2018 among the people residing in rural areas of Birbhum district in West Bengal, India who utilized the public health system (lay informants), formal and informal leaders of the community, community level health workers and peripheral health staff (key informants). Three community blocks, two sub-centers from each block and one village from each sub-center were selected randomly. In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 lay and 36 key informants using Laverack’s nine dimension model of community empowerment. Framework analysis was done to summarize data.

Results: Participation of people was restricted to awareness and utilization of existing health services. Unmet aspiration for greater participation was noted among a small section of the community. They were mostly fitted to the role of beneficiaries. Functioning of village level organization to promote communitization as envisaged in national health programmes was largely deficient. The community health workers acted as the most peripheral appendages of formal health system rather than the health activists to empower community regarding community’s health.

Conclusion: Although, every national health programme advocated community empowerment, the current status and the process of empowerment in health is in nascent stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anemia in Pregnant Women under Antenatal Care at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria and Association to Knowledge and Attitude on Anemia and Its Prevention

P. A. Awoyesuku, C. Ohaka, B. Ngeri

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 20-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2030390

Background: Anemia in pregnancy is an important public health problem worldwide. Despite the efforts of government and health bodies, maternal anemia continues to be a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This suggests that other factors contribute to the high prevalence of anemia in pregnancy despite the intervention efforts.

Objective: This study sought to determine the prevalence and anemic status of pregnant women at booking, to assess their knowledge of anemia and attitude to anemia prevention measures. And to determine associated risk factors for anemia and if there is a correlation between anemic status and level of knowledge/attitude to anemia prevention

Methodology: An institutional-based, cross-sectional study was carried out. 322 consenting participants between 18-48 years were interviewed at booking using a structured questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics; their knowledge on causes, symptoms, prevention, and complications of anemia in pregnancy; and information on attitude towards anemia prevention strategies were collected. The PCV and HIV results of the women were retrieved. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Associations between different variables were determined using Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test, as appropriate, and logistic regression was used to test statistical significance at P<0.05.

Results: Their mean age±SD was 31.65±4.72 years and the median parity was 1.Of the 322 women, 194(60.2%) were anemic, with 186(57.8%) having mild anemia. There was no significant association between anemia and age, marital status, education, employment, parity, pregnancy interval and socio-economic status, but there was a significant association between gestational age and HIV status, with only gestational age remaining significant after logistic regression. The relationship between anemia and knowledge and attitude was not significant, but the higher educational status was significantly related to knowledge of anemia and its prevention.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in this study was high. Despite good knowledge and attitude to anemia prevention, late booking for ANC caused a significant association with the occurrence of anemia. Efforts are needed to encourage early booking and early commencement of iron and folic acid supplements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors, Burden and Prevention of Low Back Pain among Nurses at University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

Iyabode Adetoro Gbadamosi, Elizabeth Urenna Ike

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2030391

Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) and its negative effects on the nurses’ quality-of-life are worrisome. Studies on LBP among nurses are scanty in Nigeria. Study assessed prevalence, risk-factors, burdens and prevention of LBP among clinical nurses at University College Hospital, Nigeria.

Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study that utilized quota and convenience sampling techniques in selecting 406 nurses. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Level of Significance, p≤0.05. 

Results: Mean age of respondents was 39.51±8.525. Prevalence of LBP was very high (83.7%) among clinical nurses in the study setting. Risk-factors identified by respondents include some nursing activities, perceived stress and lack of job satisfaction. Analgesic use, movement restriction, low productivity, and psychological concern were among the burdens of LBP identified by the respondents. Preventive measures suggested include training of nurses on relaxation techniques, proper use of body mechanism/proper posture, and provision of mechanical assistive turning/lifting devices. Chi-square analysis showed that gender (χ2 =6.450, p=0.022) and nursing procedures were significantly associated with prevalence of LBP among clinical nurses in the facility.

Conclusions: High prevalence of LBP among clinical nurses of the facility has negative consequences on the general well-being of the victims, the profession, the clients/patients, the facility and the entire society. There is urgent need to put policies and strategies in place to curb high prevalence of LBP and its consequences on the clinical nurses in the facility as identified in the study. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia during Pregnancy and the Use of Malaria Prevention Methods by Women Attending Antenatal Consultation at the Regional Hospital Bamenda, Northwest Cameroon

Calvin Bisong Ebai, Felicite Natacha Etindele Ebongue, Odelia Kwende-Tanjong Lum, Jammbe Z. Musoro, Cedric Yamssi, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2030393

Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in pregnant women and to identify the prevention methods used by pregnant women attending antenatal consultation (ANC) in the Regional Hospital Bamenda (RHB).

Study Design: This was a hospital based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Regional Hospital Bamenda between April and May 2020. 

Methodology: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, history of pregnancy and the use of malaria prevention methods. Capillary blood was collected through finger prick and used to prepare thick and thin blood smears that were Giemsa-stained for the detection of malaria parasite by microscopy.

Results: A total of 250 pregnant women took part in this study. The mean age ±SD was 27.71 ±5.47 years. The mean pregnancy age ±SD was 24.04 ±8.59 weeks. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 18.0%. The most used malaria prevention method was LLINs (190/211, 91.0%). There was a statistically significant difference in MP prevalence between women who used IPTp (13.9%) and those who didn’t (26.5%) (χ2 =5.87, P= .02); between women who used bed nets and IPT (12.9%) in combination and those who didn’t (24.0%) (χ2 = 5.12, P= .03) as well as between participants who used at least one method (16.4%) and their counterparts who didn’t use any malaria prevention method (38.9%) (χ2=5.73, P=.01). Living in a house with plank or mud walls (13; 29.0%) was surprisingly more protective than living in a cement brick or mud brick house (30; 71.0%) (OR: 2.34; 95%CI: 1.10-4.97; P=.03).

Conclusion: Malaria remains a health preoccupation among pregnant women attending ANC consultation in the RHB. Use of bed nets and IPTp as well as the use of at least one prevention method could be protective.