Open Access Case Report

Vegan Diet Induced Myopathy

Vamsi Chalasani, Sundar Shanmugam, Shankar Venkatasubramanian, Rithvik Ramesh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 28-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2130399

Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism can present for the first time as myopathy in some patients. Strict vegans are at risk of vitamin D deficiency resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism. A myopathic presentation may lead to investigations and misdiagnosis of neuromuscular disease, ratherthan a metabolic bone disease.

Methods: We report a young lady presenting with severe progressive limb girdle pattern myopathy, with brisk reflexes and periphral neuropathy. Electrophysiology confirmed the presence of ,yopathy and neuropathy, and labaotorial evaluation revealed vitamin D deficiency and elevated parathormone levels.

Results: She was supplemented with vitamin D, and on follow up was found to have a near complete improvement.

Conclusion: Hence it is imperative to evaluate for vitamin D deficiency in all

susceptible patients, especially with a history of strict vegetarianism.

Open Access Short Communication

Spatial Distribution of 100,477 Thousand Deaths Per COVID-19 in Brazil

Daniele Melo Sardinha, Ana Lúcia da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Conceição Dias Garcês, Thalyta Mariany Rêgo Lopes Ueno, Gabriel Fazzi Costa, Diana da Costa Lobato, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e Guimarães, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2130397

The COVID-19 reached the pandemic level and in Brazil has already caused 100,477 deaths. This study is a Short Communication about the spatial distribution of deaths by COVID-19 in Brazil, from data from the Coronavirus Brasil platform. It was shown that Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Ceará, Pará, and Amazonas present the greatest lethality in Brazil, especially in the metropolitan regions. The distribution of deaths shows that it has already reached all regions of Brazil, with greater impact in some states. It was also possible, from the epidemiological bulletins, to identify that the deaths stand out in men above 60 years of age, with comorbidities such as heart diseases and diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving “Fast” Indicators of TB Infection Control through Targeted Health Workers Training; Findings from Facility Based Studies in Abia State, Nigeria

Ejiroghene C. Iwuoha, Chika N. Onwasigwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2130395

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of health workers training and implementation of the FAST strategy on the “FAST” indicators at Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH); a tertiary referral facility. ”FAST” strategy; a focused approach to stopping TB spread in congregate settings developed by TB Care1 stands for Finding TB cases Actively, Separating safely, and Treating effectively.

Study Design: This was a facility based interventional study using control group design methods with ABSUTH as the intervention facility while Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU) was the control.

Methodology: Health workers (74 across cadres; doctors, nurses, laboratory scientist and medical record staff)  selected through stratified random sampling were trained to ensure daily cough surveillance and screening for TB among patients at the General outpatient, medical wards and HIV clinic of ABSUTH under supervision of a “FAST” focal person.Baseline “Fast Indicators” in the facility TB records of newly diagnosed TB patients 3 months before and 3 months after the training intervention were obtained.

Results: At baseline the “FAST” strategy indicators recorded in the study facility include time to diagnosis > 1 week, time to treatment 3.5 days, presumptive TB cases 92, number of cases commenced on treatment were 22 while presumptive DRTB cases was 0.33. This study observed a significant positive difference in all the “FAST” indicators following the intervention. Time to diagnosis decreased by 52%, time to treatment decreased by 17% while the number of presumptive TB cases increased by over 100%. Number of TB cases diagnosed also increased by 100% as well as the cases commenced on treatment by 91%, while number of diagnosed DRTB cases increased by over 100%.These were all statistically significant ( P=.013,.03, .032,  and .049 except time to treatment P= 0.053).

Conclusion: The training intervention on ‘FAST” strategy of TB infection Control significantly improved FAST Indicators in the intervention facility with attendant reduction in diagnostic delays and increased case notification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) on Seafarers’ Life and Well-Being

Alec D. Coutroubis, Angelos A. Menelaou, Eugen-Henning Adami

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2130398

This research paper aims to identify the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and resulting travel restrictions to seafarers, either onboard or whose embarkations have been delayed.

Two questionnaires were prepared, specific to the seafaring category. Four hundred onboard seafarers completed the survey, as did 100 waiting to embark. The demographic of the respondents represents the global seafaring community. The findings show that both categories have been and continue to be affected by the prevailing circumstances and have substantial concerns about the physical, mental and economic wellbeing of themselves, their families and colleagues.

Given their views that the pandemic will continue for some time to come, it is concluded that employee welfare and freedom of movement must be addressed in a systemic manner by industry and governments alike

Open Access Original Research Article

Diseases of Poverty: Neglected Tropical Skin Diseases in a Dermatologic Clinic in South- South Nigeria

Bolaji Otike- Odibi, Eshan Henshaw, Olumayowa Oninla, Dasetima Altraide

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2130406

Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases that are present.

In tropical and subtropical countries. They predominantly occur in developing countries, but may also be found in some developed countries; often associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation and living in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set targets for elimination and eradication of NTDs, as this would improve the conditions of living in affected communities.

A number of neglected tropical diseases have skin manifestations, thus the dermatologist has a key role to play in their elimination and eradication.  This study at the dermatologic clinic of University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, aims to identify the types and prevalence of these diseases.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study in which the records of patients presenting with neglected tropical skin diseases (NTSDs) in the dermatologic clinic of University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital from January 2015 to April 2018 were obtained and analysed.

Results: One thousand five hundred and eighteen (1518) patients who visited the dermatology clinic during the study period were assessed. Number of 115 cases of NTSDs were identified, which represents 7.57% of the total population.  There were more males (60.87%), with vast majority of cases being in their third decade. Five NTDs were identified, scabies being the most prevalent (80.87%) followed by Hansen’s disease (15.65%).  These diseases affected the productive age groups, therefore possessing the potential of perpetuating poverty in the community.

Conclusion: Neglected tropical skin diseases are common in the dermatologic clinic, Scabies and Hansen’s disease were most prevalent cases recorded. Interestingly scabies was found more in males, in the third decade of life.

This is when men are quite productive, and therefore has the possibility of perpetuating poverty.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Drug Repurposing: A Strategy to Treat Human Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

Neetu Bhattacharya, Shashank Kumar Maurya, Sabyasachi Senapati, Amit Bhattacharya

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2130407

Novel coronavirus pandemic has created a massive public health emergency causing around 1.85 million deaths world-wide till 5th January, 2021. New SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) coronavirus strain known as SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent which infected more than 84 million people across the globe. Current epicentre of the pandemic has shifted to Europe and United States and Indian subcontinent from its place of origin-Wuhan City, Hubei province in China. Due to limited availability of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 or its related β-coronavirus (SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV), mass immunization is currently not possible. Thus, use of curative therapies could be the only choice of intervention. Therefore, rapid treatment of millions of COVID-19 patients in limited time can only be achieved by repurposing pre-approved and existing drugs. Network-based high-throughput computational approach has also predicted several repurposable drugs. Cheaper, less toxic and well tolerated drugs such as antimalarial drugs: Chloroquine (CQ) & Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ); antiviral drugs: Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are among many others that have been proposed for the COVID-19 treatment. Presently limited controlled clinical trials are underway to assess the therapeutic outcome of these repurposed drugs along with novel candidate vaccines and medicines. Beside these, convalescent plasma therapy has also emerged as potential therapeutic approach being tested in several countries. This review focuses on few of the promising repurposed drugs and their outcomes that are presently under evaluation for their safety and efficacy against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).