Open Access Original Research Article

Care of the Covid-19 Patients: Experiences of Health Workers in Rivers State Nigeria

Tondor Cleopatra Uzosike, Alali Dan-Jumbo, Mienye Bob-Manuel, Aloni A. Alali, Danagogo S. Lawson

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2330414

Background: Frontline health workers are faced with the overwhelming responsibility of caring for patients infected with the Coronavirus and this has seriously affected their physical and mental health status due to the rapid spread of the disease globally and the unprepared state of health workers who were recruited with little or no skills in infectious disease care. This study describes the experiences of healthcare workers involved in the management of COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A qualitative study design was employed, using a phenomenological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted by telephone on health workers selected purposively from the four COVID-19 treatment centers. The health workers consisted of seven doctors, three nurses, and two hygienists.

Results: Data collected were transcribed and content analysis was done using Atlas. Ti. Some major highlights identified include; the bravery and commitment of health workers despite their proximity to patients, the anxiety and fear of becoming infected, the inconveniencing nature of the PPEs and its effect on their work efficiency, the patients mental and health status on admission (denial, fear, co-morbidities, need for special attention), and other challenges (boredom, shortage of personal protective equipment and medications, the need for special diet and privacy by some patients). Suggestions that emerged were; training, government action, and installing security cameras in patients’ wards. 

Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for training health workers to enhance preparedness for future pandemics, provision of psycho-social support for health workers and patients, and government commitment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Three Fruit Seed Extracts as Larvicide against Three Major Mosquito Vectors Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

Lame Younoussa, Kary Mallam Oumarou, Theodora Kopa Kowa, Serge Eteme Enama, Gabriel Agbor Agbor, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 16-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2330415

The CH2Cl2-MeOH (30:70 v/v) extracts of the seeds of Mangifera indica (Mango), Persea americana (Avocado) and Dacryodes edulis (African plum) were evaluated for potential mosquito larvicidal activity against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae. Extracts were diluted with 1 mL of methanol and concentrations ranging from 1000 to 125 mg/L in 4 replicates each, were prepared in the volume of 100 mL in the plastic cups (250 mL). A volume of 1 mL of methanol added to 99 mL of tap water was prepared as negative control and Bi-one (1000 mg/L) constituted a positive control. In each test solution, 25 larvae of each mosquito species were separately transferred and larval mortality was recorded after 24 h post-treatment. As results, the three plant seed extracts applied at 1000 mg/L caused for at least 79% mortality of each mosquito species larvae assessed. The seed extract of P. americana (LC50 of 98.31, 129.24 and 136.26 mg/L, respectively against An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quiquefasciatus larvae) was the most potent followed by D. edulis (LC50 of 176.87 mg/L for An. gambiae, 198.68 mg/L for Ae. aegypti and 201.70 mg/L for Cx. quinquefasciatus) and M. indica (LC50 of 258.98 mg/L for An. gambiae, 297.35 mg/L for Ae. aegypti and 435.45 mg/L for Cx. quinquefasciatus).  Globally, all the seed extracts were more toxic against An. gambiae larvae compared to other mosquito species and need further exploration for the development of a new botanical larvicide to reduce mosquito densities.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Antileishmanial Activities of Olea europaea, Kigelia africana, Terminalia mollis, Croton Macrostachyus and Bridella micrantha, Kenyan Medicinal Plants

Mukhwana Dennis Wafula, Ayieko Cyrus, Mweresa Collins, Ingonga Johnstone, Matoke-Muhia Damaris

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 30-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2330416

Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem globally. Visceral leishmaniasis is known to be fatal if left untreated, while cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most neglected. The first-line treatment of leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonial drugs which are expensive, requiring inpatient treatment and toxic. The Plants containing active compounds against other protozoan diseases may offer alternatives against leishmania parasites. This study determined the in vitro antileishmanial activity of Olea europaea, Kigelia africana, Terminalia mollis, Croton macrostachyus and Bridella micrantha extracts. The plant samples were dried, pulverized into fine powders and extracted using ethanol at the Center for Traditional Medicine and Drugs Research, KEMRI. The in vitro assays were carried out at the Leishmania laboratory, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, KEMRI. In in- vitro assays the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) on L. major promastigotes, percentage rates of macrophages infected by amastigotes and cytotoxicity on Vero cells were determined. For each parameter analyzed, differences among treatment groups exposed to different drugs were tested by logistic regression. Results showed that promastogote and amastigote growth inhibition was significantly affected by the crude extracts from the plants (P < 0.05) after 24 hours of exposure where the most effective drug was the standard drug (Amphotericin B) while among the crude extracts of the herbal drugs, T. mollis was the most effective against amastigote followed by C. macrostachyus while O. europaea was the least effective. Mammalian cell viability was significantly affected by the various test compounds (P < 0.05) after 24 hours exposure where % cell viability of herbal drugs, B. microstachyus, O. africana resulted to the most toxic effects by reducing the % cell viability to less than 50%. The study recommends the use of T. mollis in management of leishmaniasis in areas they occur. Further analysis of the active compounds that that affect efficacy of the plant extracts is advised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to COVID-19 Prevention among Health Care Workers in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

Oche M. Oche, Habibullah Adamu, Musa Yahaya, Ismail A. Raji, Hudu Garba Illo, Zainab Abdullahi Kontagora, Abdulaziz Mohammad Danmadami, Adamu Ijapa, Asmau Wali, Hamza Yusuf, Abba Aji

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 44-61
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2330417

Aims: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to coronavirus pandemic among health care workers in Sokoto metropolis of Sokoto State, Nigeria. 

Study Design: A cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Sokoto metropolis, northwest Nigeria between July and October 2020

Methodology: Four hundred and twenty-seven respondents were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected manually using a self-administered questionnaire entered into the computer for analysis using IBM SPSS version 25 for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and frequencies of the various variables were tabulated.

Results: The mean age was 35.16+- 9.25 years, with those aged 30-39 years constituting 38% of the respondents. There were 53.2% males, 47.3% nurses, and 27.2% doctors, and 71.6% of the respondents were from tertiary health institutions, out of which 42% had 1-5 years of work experience. Up to 99% were aware of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), and overall, 78.2% had good knowledge, and 91% of all the respondents had positive attitudes towards the pandemic (p-value 0.001). Overall, 68.4% of the health workforce had appropriate practices towards preventing COVID-19, and 83% were willing to be posted to isolation centers with adequate personal protective equipment (PPE).

Conclusion: The study demonstrated significant awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 amongst the health workforce in Sokoto with significant positive attitudes towards the pandemic and appropriate practices towards preventing the pandemic and willingness to work in isolation centers to support the prevention of the pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Status among Hypertensive Subjects in Isiala Mbano, Imo State, South East, Nigeria

M. U. Elendu, A. A. Nwankwo, J. N. Egwurugwu, P. I. Ugwu, P. C. Ugwuezumba, M. I. Oraebosi, D. C. Ejiofor, C. N. Ekweogu, M. C. Ohamaeme

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 62-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2330418

Aim: The Complete Blood Count (CBC) among hypertensive subjects in Isiala Mbano, Imo State, Nigeria West Africa were studied.

Methodology: The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2017) current definition of hypertension was used to ascertain, diagnoses and assigned eighty (80)hypertensive subjects after three different consecutive blood pressure check into tests groups. Other blood pressure measures such as pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure were calculated appropriately. Venous blood samples were collected with 5mls syringe and immediately emptied into EDTA container for complete blood count analysis.

Results: The results showed increase in RBC count, HB, PCV and decrease in MCV among hypertensive subjects compared with normotensive subjects. It was statistically insignificant in all age groups. No changes were seen in MCHC and MCH. The results also, showed increase in PLTS count. The increase in PLTS count was statistically significant at P<0.05 and <0.001 among hypertensive age groups 36-65yrs and >66yrs respectively. Increase in PLTS count among 20-35yr age group was not significant. There were increase in WBC count among hypertensive subjects compared with normotensive subjects in all age groups. It was statistically significant at P<0.05 and <0.001 among hypertensive age groups 36-50yrs and >66yrs respectively. Neutrophil was increased in all age groups and was statistically significant at P<0.05 except 20-35yr age group. No changes were seen on lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils.

Conclusion: Haematological parameters investigated could predict possible cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urinary Schistosomiasis among Vulnerable Children in Security Challenged District of Safana, Katsina State - Nigeria

Timothy Auta, Jesse Joshua Ezra, Hafsat Sada Rufai, Emmanuel Dayo Alabi, Everest Anthony

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2330419

Aims: Schistosomiasis is among the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) which has remained a global health burden, causing illnesses of great health, social and economic implications; especially among the most vulnerable. This study assessed the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among almajiri and primary school children in Safana Town, Katsina State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Random Sampling Technique was used in collection of samples.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in a security challenged Safana District, Katsina State, Nigeria between May and September, 2019.

Methodology: A total of three hundred (300) urine samples (150 each from almajiris and primary school pupils) were collected using plain sample bottles, they were taken to the Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, where they were analyzed for the eggs of Schistosoma haematobium using centrifugation technique. Data obtained were subjected to Chi-Square analysis to test for association with risk factors.

Results: Out of the 300 samples examined, 64 (21.3%) of them were infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The almajiri school had the highest prevalence infection of 42 (28.0%) out of the 150 samples examined, while the conventional schools (primary school) had the prevalence of 22 (14.6%) out of 150 examined. When prevalence was compared between males and females, 57 (25.1%) out of 227 males were infected, while only 7 (9.5%) out of 73 females had the infection. Significant associations of schistosomiasis with type of school (χ2 = 0.023) and with sex (χ2 = 0.005) were established.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Safana despite several rounds Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with praziquantel; with almajiris remaining reservoirs of the infection in the District. Environmental improvement and snail vector elimination are required in this District, with a better coordinated MDA.