Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Pattern and Outcome of Congenital Malformations among Neonates Seen at a Tertiary Health Institution in Yenagoa

I. I. Tunde-Oremodu, O. A. Okosun, U. Idholo, A. S. Ujuanbi, K. K. Odinaka, O. O. Adeyemi, O. E. Kunle-Olowu, C. O. Duru, P. P. F. Numbere, N. Oyeyemi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130424

Background: Congenital malformations (CM) are significant causes of childhood morbidity and mortality impacting negatively on the affected family’s emotional and financial life. It also results in an enormous burden on a nation’s health and socio-economic systems. However, few studies on CM have emanated from developing countries including Nigeria and specifically from Yenagoa, Bayelsa State which is located in the oil rich Niger Delta region. We therefore analyzed the prevalence, pattern and outcome of management of babies with CM seen at the Neonatal unit (SCBU) of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa. This could be used as evidence for policy makers to develop and implement CM surveillance, prevention and supportive programs.

Methods: This was a descriptive observational study of all neonates with CM admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) over a one year period from 1st February 2017 to 31st January 2018. Identification and confirmation of congenital anomalies was done by physical examination, diagnostic investigations and surgical interventions. The conditions were classified organ and system-wise except for the chromosomal abnormalities. The prevalence and pattern of defects were determined, while factors related to the outcome of the anomalies were calculated with odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Data entry and analysis were performed using excel and SPSS version 22.

Results: Among the 502 newborn admissions during the study period, congenital anomalies were found in 61 newborns, giving a prevalence rate of 12.2% with a female preponderance of 55.7%. The commonest CM were those related to the cardiovascular system (47.5%) followed by the digestive system (32.8%) then musculoskeletal system (19.7%). The mean duration of care was 9.7± 9.0 days with mortality of 30.5% recorded at that period. Babies with CM affecting the cardiovascular system and chromosomal anomalies were less likely to survive although these relationships were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, duration of care showed a statistically significant relationship with outcome as babies who spent one day and less in the neonatal unit  had  reduced odds of a favourable outcome (OR – 0.07). An increased odd of survival (OR – 2.09) was seen in babies with only one congenital birth defect.

Conclusion: A high prevalence of Congenital malformations in newborns was demonstrated in this study. This has highlighted the need for a well-designed surveillance, prevention and supportive hospital, State and National programme for affected babies and their families.

Open Access Original Research Article

Governance and the New Corona Virus (COVID-19) Outbreak in the World: Empirical Evidence

Melingui Bate Adalbert Abraham Ghislain, Omang Ombolo Messsono, Nsoga Nsoga Mermoz Homère, Tsomb Tsomb Etienne Inédit Blaise

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130428

Aims: This paper aims to analyze the effect of public governance on the spread and mortality of the new corona virus. It focuses on the effects of differences observed in government’s responsiveness on the spread and mortality of this pandemic around the world.

Sample: Our study is based on a sample of 129 countries from December, 8th 2019 to May 5th, 2020.

Methods: The Ordinary Least Squares method is applied to cross-sectional data. We also proceed by descriptive statistics and scatter analyses to access the effect of public governance on the spread and the mortality of the Covid-19.

Results: The results obtained show that government response time favors the speed of spread, level of infection, and mortality related to the Covid-19. The results indicate that countries in which governments have reacted early have lower levels of contamination and deaths than those that reacted late. Finally, our results suggest that the stringency of early government measures is a capital factor explaining the spread and mortality of this virus. Our results are robust to regional specificities, which distinguish relatively more resilient developing countries from developed countries with higher levels of contagion and mortality. Then, we recommend for all categories of countries a greater speed and rigour in government responsiveness in the management of pandemic diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Conditions and Predictors of Lassa Fever Transmission in a Low Socioeconomic Community in Nigeria

G. R. E. E. Ana, Aniekan Eric Ulor, Adedayo Faneye, David Bamidele Olawade

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 25-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130429

Lassa fever is of public health concern in West Africa due to its endemic nature. Housing conditions have been revealed to be important sites for primary transmission. This study assessed environmental and housing conditions of a low-income community for factors that could contribute to the transmission of Lassa fever. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a field component. Observational checklist and an interviewer-administered questionnaire were used to assess environmental conditions and respondents’ hygiene knowledge and practices respectively. Rodent traps were also placed in selected households. Data collected were analysed using SPSS Version20. 40% of the respondents had poor housing conditions, 80% had good hygiene practice while 20% had poor knowledge. Respondents with good housing condition were 1.9 times more likely to have good hygiene practice compared to houses with poor housing condition (OR= 1.941, p= 0.009). Rodents trapped from the households were Rattus rattus (43.2%), Rattus fuscipes (38.6%) and Rattus norvegicus (18.2%). Houses with most rats trapped had the poorest housing conditions and hygiene practices. The results suggest that households in the community are susceptible to the transmission of Lassa fever. Therefore, effective awareness campaigns on the transmission of Lassa fever and good hygiene and sanitation practice should be encouraged in and around the home.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Speech and Language Delay among Children Up to or Less than 3 years Seen in the Children Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt

Ibekwe Matilda Uju, Gabriel-Job Nneka

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130430

Background: In the literature, there appears to be a lot of data on speech delay in children but most emanated from the western world, but little from sub-Sahara Africa especially Nigeria. This study therefore is to determine the prevalence and the risk factors of speech and language delay among children up to or less than 3years seen in our environment.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study carried out in the Paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital within the period of June 2020 to September 2020. The Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST 0-3) and Trivandrum Development Screening Chart (TDSC 0-3) are the tools used both to determine the speech and language delays and the developmental milestone in these children aged 0-3 years. Any child 3 years and below attending the clinic was included in the study; however children with apparent syndromes are excluded as well as children whose parents decline to give consent.  IBM SPSS Statistics version 25 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics was employed in the analysis.

Results: The study comprised of 157 subjects with ages ranging from 2 months to 36 months.  There is a significant relationship between hearing impairment and language/speech delay (p=0.002). There was a significant relationship between the various identified delays and a history of jaundice in the neonatal period.  A prevalence of 15.3% for language/speech delay was obtained.

Conclusion: Language/speech delay is prevalent in our environment. Perinatal risk factors are significantly associated with these delays.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Helminthic Infections among School Aged Children in Kurmi Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

Vera Yafeh Akwa, Waetsi Nya Yusufu, Victor Ugochukwu Obisike, Amina Ojochide Hassan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130432

One of the parasitic infection faced by school age children in developing countries is intestinal parasitic infection. This study was designed to determine risk factors associated with gastrointestinal helminthic infections among school age children. A total of 600 stool samples were randomly examined by direct smear method under microscope and formol-ether concentration technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-noneconomic status of the children’s parents and other variables. Of this, (n=252; 42%) were found to be infected with gastrointestinal helminths infections given a breakdown of male (n=148; 24.7%) and female (n=104; 17.3%). However, there was no significant difference in prevalence among the socio-economic status. Parent whose occupation was farmer (n=169; 28%) also recorded high rate of infection, the lowest prevalence was seen among civil servants (n=19; 3%). Parents with little or no knowledge of intestinal helminths were found to be statistically significant (n=199; 33.1%, p<0.02; α =0.02) The  highest  rate of infection was recorded among children who had dirty finger nails (n=232; 38.6%), followed by those who walked barefooted(28.2%),then open defecation (n=147; 24.6%),  hand washing after defecation (n=195; 30,7%,), habit of eating raw/roasted meat (n=136; 22.3%), hand washing before meal (n=102; 17.02%) and keeping of dirty clothes and bed linens (n=180; 30%) . Such a relatively high prevalence rate of helminthic infection in the study area could be used as a base line for the concern bodies to launch de-worming intervention campaigns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Picture of SARS-Cov-2 Infection in Children in Guanajuato State, Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study

Nicolás Padilla-Raygoza, Gilberto Flores-Vargas, Cuauhtémoc Sandoval-Salazar, Efraín Navarro-Olivos, María de Jesús Gallardo-Luna, Elia Lara-Lona, Francisco J. Magos Vázquez, Daniel Alberto Díaz-Martínez

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130433

Aims: To compare the signs and symptoms in COVID-19 and another respiratory virus, among children.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was designed based on data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System of the General Directorate of Epidemiology.

Place and Duration of Study: All registries in database of confirmed and discarded cases of COVID-19 from Guanajuato State, Mexico in the period March-July 2020.

Methodology: A confirmed case was one with clinical data mainly fever, cough and dyspnea, who had traveled to a country affected by the pandemic or had had contact with a confirmed case, and a positive rRT-PCR test for SARS -CoV-2. The cases discarded were those with the negative rRT-PCR test. The presence of clinical data among those under 18 years of age, of confirmed and discarded cases in the state of Guanajuato, was compared with Z for two proportions and P-value.

Results: The sample included 446 confirmed cases and 2,134 discarded cases. The average age of those confirmed was 9.60 ± 5.46 years and 8.01 ± 5.39 years, among those discarded (P <.05). In both groups, male predominated (P = .91). Fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis show statistically significant differences between confirmed and discarded cases (P < .05).

Conclusion: There are not differences in signs and symptoms in COVID-19 and another respiratory virus. It is concluded that since the characteristics of COVID-19 are like the ones of other viral infections, the diagnosis cannot be made merely based on signs and symptoms.