Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Deaths Occurred in Households during the Pandemic by COVID-19 in a Brazilian Amazon Region: An Epidemiological Approach

Ana Lúcia da Silva Ferreira, Daniele Melo Sardinha, Phelipe da Silva Rodrigues, Adriana Pimentel Veras, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e Guimarães, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, Emilyn Costa Conceição, Paulo Cerqueira dos Santos Júnior, Glauber Tadaiesky Marques, Diana da Costa Lobato, Karla Valéria Batista Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 10-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i430447

In the absence of an analysis of deaths at home from an epidemiological perspective, this study aims to analyze and describe the epidemiological profile of deaths at home assessed by the Death Ceremony Service (DCS) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the metropolitan region of the Brazilian Amazon, Belém do Pará. A descriptive, quantitative, secondary-based study based on the databases of the Mortality Information System (SIM), referring to the deaths that occurred from March 1 to March 27 June 2020. The variables worked were related to the profile and the causes in the death certificate. The causes of home deaths in 2019 were used to compare with 2020. In the indicated period, 1,203 deaths occurred, an increase of 454% in relation to 2019. The male gender (57.30%), the age group of 60+ (80.80%) and brown race (77.70%) were the most frequent. The main cause of death Acute myocardial infarction (15.05%) followed by COVID-19 (10.29%). During the pandemic, the majority of home deaths were not directly caused by COVID-19, however, they were influenced by it due to the need for social isolation, with the impossibility of obtaining the proper diagnosis or proper treatment, due to the impossibility of on-site care or lack of immediate response.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Vitamin C and Choline Chloride Supplementation on Temperature and Some Haematological Parameters in Trypanosoma congolense Infected Rats

C. S. Ukwueze, M. U. Ememe, K. J. Otumchere

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i430448

Aims: Effects of Vitamin C and Choline chloride supplementation on temperature and some haematological parameters were investigated in Trypanosoma congolense infected rats.

Methodology: A total of twenty five (25) healthy albino rats weighing between 113.5-154.3 g were used for the study. They were randomly divided into groups (A-E) of five rats per group.  Group A was uninfected untreated which served as the control, group B was infected untreated. Groups C, D and E were infected treated with Choline chloride, Vitamin C and combination of Choline chloride and Vitamin C respectively.

Results: The mean body temperature was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the infected untreated group on days 21 and 28 post infection, when compared to the infected supplemented treated groups. The mean packed cell volume (PCV) decreased significantly (p <0.05) in the infected untreated group on days 21 and 28 post infection, when compared to the other infected treated groups. The mean haemoglobin concentration (HB) decreased significantly (p <0.05) in the infected untreated group on days 7, 21 and 28 post infection, when compared to the other infected and treated groups. The mean red blood cell counts (RBC) decreased significantly (p <0.05) in the infected untreated group on day 28 post infection compared to the other infected and treated groups. The mean total white blood cell counts (TWBC) decreased significantly (p <0.05) in the infected untreated group on days 14 and 21 post infection compared to the infected treated groups. On day 28 post infection TWBC counts in the group treated with combination of vitamin C and Choline chloride increased (p <0.05) when compared with the other treated groups. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in all the infected treated groups when compared with the control

Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that combined supplementation of Vitamin C and Choline chloride will be more effective in ameliorating the haematological impacts of trypanosomosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Assessment of Quality of Groundwater from Private Owned Wells in Unguja Island Zanzibar

Haji Mwevura, Moh’d R. Haji, Wahira J. Othman, Chukwuma J. Okafor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 30-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i430449

The Assessment of seasonal changes in groundwater quality is an essential aspect for evaluating pollution level which can be a reflection of the source environment and the activities of man, including the use and management measures. This study examined the effect of seasonal variation on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of groundwater in the Bububu constituency which is located in the West district within the Urban –West region of Unguja Island. The study was conducted using cluster sampling.  Four clusters with a large number of wells were selected for further analysis. The number of wells from each cluster was sampled for physicochemical and bacteriological contamination levels. Samples were collected in two different seasons (Wet and Dry) to allow comparison between the two seasons. Analysis of water samples (N= 52) indicated that the sources are very vulnerable to microbial contamination particularly during the wet season at which 78.85% of the analyzed samples were contaminated with fecal coliform and unfit for human consumption. However, all measured physicochemical parameters were within the acceptable range except the levels of nitrate during the wet season in some samples taken at Kibweni and Sharifumsa which exceeded the recommended level by WHO. There is a need for adequate treatment of water particularly during the wet season as well as serious monitoring and proper regulation by the appropriate authorities to curb the menace and safe guard the lives of people to prevent a possible epidemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Gender on Some Red Cell Indices, L-Arginine and D-dimer in Malaria Parasite Severity amongst Children Resident in Rivers State, Nigeria

S. O. Akwuebu, B. S. Mbeera, N. C. Ibeh, E. M. Eze, Z. A. Jeremiah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i430451

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of gender on malaria parasite severity in children resident in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was cross-sectional observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, between the month of March and August 2020.

Methodology: A total of 822 pediatrics (0-16 years), were randomly selected for this study after due parental consent. 5ml of venous blood was collected from each subject: 1ml was dispensed into paediatric EDTA (for haematologic and parasite density) and 4 ml into sodium citrate bottle for L-arginine assay by ELISA-method, while Full blood count was determined using haematological auto-analyser, Mindray BC-6800. Malaria density was determined by microscopic method using thick and thin Giemsa stained blood smears. Level of significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: There was a significant decrease (p<.05) in the mean (41.04±3.80%) neutrophil count in female subject with complicated malaria compared with the control (42.81±0.98%) as against a significant decrease in mean (37.71±0.96%) neutrophil count of female subject with uncomplicated malaria. A significant decrease in neutrophil (28.05±3.37%) of male subjects with complicated malaria and uncomplicated malaria (36.10±0.79%) was seen when compared to control (44.32±0.88%). Again, a significant decrease (p<.05) in eosinophil count of female with complicated malaria (3.32±0.74%) was seen when compared with the control subject (3.81±0.19%) and no significant difference was seen in female subjects with uncomplicated malaria (3.62±0.19%) when compared with the control. A significant increase in eosinophil was seen in male subjects with complicated malaria (4.47±0.66%) and uncomplicated malaria (4.52±0.16%) when compared with the control (3.88±0.17%). There was observed a significant difference (p<.001) in the mean L-arginine values of female subjects with complicated (39.22±9.57pg/ml) and uncomplicated (65.13±2.41 pg/ml) malaria compared with the control (42.85±2.48 pg/ml). However, no significant difference was seen in male subjects with complicated (33.21±8.49) and uncomplicated (45.51±2.00 pg/ml) malaria when compared with control (47.97±2.21 pg/ml). Also, a significant difference (p<0.0019) was seen between the mean D2D values of female subjects with complicated (6436.64±568.94 pg/ml) and uncomplicated (2824.55±143.46 pg/ml) malaria among the study subjects as against the control (1866.39±147.35 pg/ml).

Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed a trend between gender and malaria type did not significantly change haematological parameters with the exception of the immune cells such as NEU, LYM, and EOS. However, a significant increase in L-arginine among female subjects was seen indicating a faster rate of malaria clearance.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 Pandemic: A Concise Appraisal of the Current Status

Otolorin Gbeminiyi Richard, Akefe Isaac Oluwatobi, Olufemi Olaolu Tosin, Esonu Daniel Obinna, Dunka Hassana Isaac, Adanu Williams Adanu, Danjuma Friday Audu, Kia Grace Sabo Nok, Ovwighose Naomi Oghenefega, Mshelbwala Philip Paul

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i430446

Covid-19 is caused by the Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) which is an enveloped RNA virus causing diseases in both humans and animals. This research involved a systematic review with the aid of computerised literature search from PubMed, Scopus, Medline, ScienceDirect, Embase and Google Scholar and other recently published editorials. Specific words/phrases used for the search included COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 vaccines development, SARS-CoV-2 and COVAX.The rapid velocity by which the virus spreads, based on its unexpectedly high infectivity, requires urgent action towards both the development of a vaccine and effective viral inhibitors to decrease the virulence or eliminate symptoms. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused marked effect on global health and the economy worldwide being that it is shrouded in numerous uncertainties as scientist worldwide are yet to fully understand the virus. Although significant progress have been recorded by scientists, new information of the virus keeps emerging especially with the emergence of new variants and the capability of the virus to infect a multitude organ types apart from the respiratory tract. Consequently, there is a need for scientists all over the world to be constantly updated with recent information evolving from current research. This review is a concise appraisal of the current status of the COVID-19 pandemic across various regions of the world.

Open Access Review Article

Influence of Feedback Mechanism on Health Care Services in Health Care Setting and Barriers to Their Use in Pakistan

Nisha Zahid, Rehana Shinwari, Humam Dawood

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i430452

Introduction: Healthcare settings in resource limited countries such as Pakistan needs to be improved in terms of services and all other aspects, for that quality improvement tools must be implemented. It is pertinent that continuous measures should be taken for the upgradation of our healthcare system. For this purpose, feedback mechanism is an essential tool which has to be applied at all levels to get better results and patient centric delivery of services. Patient opinions have always been an integral part for the betterment of services as it will help in enhancement of the facilities according to the requirement and will of patients.

Methodology: This is review article for which the literature research has been conducted through various electronic databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE, SCIENCE DIRECT and search engines such as Google Scholar. The keywords used were related to the use and influence of feedback mechanism in healthcare settings of resource poor countries.

A QI Solution: In the developed countries, feedback system as the tool for quality improvement has long been used and it has impacted positive effects on healthcare system [1]. Therefore, we can use feedback system from patients to the hospital professionals and with that also can introduce 360 feedback mechanism for better effect.

Conclusion: The concept of feedback needs to be willingly encompassed and supported by clinical leadership and other participants and it will definitely bring about a positive change. As Pakistan is a resource poor country, this QI initiative would help in improving the facility for both patients and employees.