Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Delay in Healthcare Seeking for Common Childhood Illnesses among Caregivers with Under-Five Children in Touboro Health District, Near Cameroon’ s Northeastern Border with Chad

H. Ngouakam, E. Nekehforba, B. Tientche

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i530453

Aims: The study sought to determine the determinants of delay in health-seeking among caregivers with under-five children.

Study Design: This was a mixed-method, cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in Touboro Health District involving 386 caregivers of under-five children from May to July 30, 2020.

Methodology: A structured questionnaire and two focused group discussions were used to gather information on caregiver knowledge of healthcare-seeking behavior. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Bivariable logistic regression was employed to
identify factors associated with of healthcare seeking behavior.

Results: Results of the 386 sick children, fever 39.9% (154/386), diarrhea 30.3% (117/386) and cough 24.9% (96/386) were the common symptoms. The majority of the caregivers of the under-five children had poor knowledge of 63% (243/386) about common infant illnesses. Caregivers of female children under-five(OR= 2.26, 95% CI: 1.29-3.96, P = 0.004), caregivers aged between 21 and 30 years (OR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.32-23.11, P = 0.019), caregivers whose occupation is housewife (OR=2.64 95% CI 1.23-5.68, P =10.013),) ,caregivers who host > 6children in a household (OR= 3.56 95% CI  1.42-8.92 , P =0.007) were key determinants of delay in health-seeking.

Conclusion: Caregivers of female children under-five, caregivers aged between 21 and 30 years, caregivers whose occupation is housewife, caregivers under-five children residing in a rural area, caregivers who host more than 6 children in a household, households with an average monthly income of  <10.000 FRS Cfa were predictors of delay appropriate health-seeking. There is a need to intensify health education focusing on childhood illnesses, and timely care-seeking to effectively respond to caregiver's expectations among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Disease in the Paediatric Population: A Cross Sectional Study at the University Teaching Hospital in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria

L. E. Yaguo-Ide, G. K. Eke

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i530454

Background: Globally, there has been a destruction of human lives, economies and health systems by the novel corona virus pandemic. Presently there is no known certain cure, although a number of vaccines have been proposed to prevent the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which was first seen as increasing number of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as the causative organism.

Objectives: To screen paediatric patients for COVID-19 at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and to know their pattern of presentation.

Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, not controlled, over a period of six weeks, using interviewer administered structured questionnaire which was adapted and used at the Accident and Emergency Department for patients triaging as a COVID-19 Risk assessment tool. No action was required for a score of 0-7, while admission into COVID-19 holding area following review by IDU was recommended for a score 8 ≥17. All children brought into the department, requiring treatment were screened.

Results: There were 131 patients, 74 (56.5%) males and 56 (42.7%) females, with a mean age 7.2 ± 5.41 years. Male: Female ratio was 1.3:1. Four children (3%) had a total score of ≥ 8, while half of them (n=2; 50%) tested positive for COVID-19, giving a disease prevalence of 1.5%. Both cases were females; fever and difficulty in breathing were the commonest symptoms. No mortality was recorded.

Conclusions: COVID-19 prevalence is low in children, and they have a good outcome. A community-based study is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Household Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Management in a Nigerian Rural Community

Ojima Zechariah Wada, David Bamidele Olawade, Omotayo Asogbon, Fiyinfoluwa Taiwo Makinde, Ismaeel Adebayo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 21-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i530455

The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) disparities between the rural and urban areas have hindered the Sustainable Development Goal 6. Recent data is required in our bid to tackle this menace effectively. This study aimed to provide data on the status of household WASH facilities in a remote village in Southwestern Nigeria. The survey was cross-sectional in design, and total sampling was used to select 70 household respondents. Data were obtained via observational checklists, questionnaire, and key informant interview guide. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. Descriptive statistics like measures of frequency and proportions were used. The respondents had a mean age of 43.1 ± 16.4 years, only 2.9% had tertiary education. The village had two handpump boreholes provided by the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform Programme (WSSSRP)-II. All the respondents reported that the boreholes were their primary drinking water source, and water was available all through the year. In over 80% of households, females were assigned the duty to fetch water, while most households had the boreholes within 30 minutes from their houses. The sanitation facilities were also provided via the WSSSRP-II. The majority (90%) of the respondents owned pit latrine with slab, of which only 10% shared their facilities with other households. Most (95.7%) of the respondents still practised open defecation at instances they could not access their household latrines. All the toilets had water for handwashing, and the soap commonly used by community members was palm kernel ash. The condition of water and sanitation in the village was quite progressive. However, subsequent interventions should ensure toilet facilities are available in non-household settings like farms and markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Burnout in Healthcare Professionals of Pakistan Amid COVID-19 – A Cross-Sectional Study

Nisha Zahid, Marium Syed, Sharmake Hersi, Syed Hasan Danish, Farah Ahmed

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i530456

Introduction: According to WHO latest by March 19th 2021, it has now become a global threat with globally 122,665,852 confirmed cases and 2,707,206 deaths involving 220 countries.. NIH Pakistan has reported the national tally of COVID 19 cases in Pakistan to 543,214 and total deaths 11,683, making it an extremely serious issue in Pakistan like in the rest of the world. Physicians, consultants, paramedics and other staff working in hospitals are at risk due to the emergence of COVID-19 which also is responsible for severe burnout in the specialties who are working at the frontline. Burnout affects job performance, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationships, and vulnerability to illnesses [1]. This research aims at finding the burnout in healthcare professionals of Karachi, Pakistan due to the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out in the tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan from Feb’2020 – Apr’ 2020 in which the questionnaire based on Malsch burnout inventory were distributed amongst the healthcare professionals including doctors and paramedics, working at the front in departments of emergency, covid special units and other areas. A scoring system of 1-4 was applied (strongly disagree-strongly agree).

Results: The results of this study showed that highest burnout was faced by healthcare professionals in the category of depersonalization and personal accomplishment amid COVID-19 while the association between the burnout and the demographic factors mentioned was also found to be significant. Moreover, the challenges faced by the healthcare professionals to the maximum owing to this pandemic were found to be lack of presence of personal protective equipment and fear to spread the infection to family.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the current pandemic situation of COVID-19 has been significantly associated with the burnout and stress amongst the health care professionals in tertiary hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, particularly those who are working on the frontline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Level of Satisfaction of Patients with TB-DOTS Implementation in Rural and Urban Centres of Selected DOTS accredited facilities in Anambra State, Nigeria

M. C. Ohamaeme, F. Ilika, C. C. Aniagboso, M. U. Elendu, C. R. Aniemena, I. G. Eberendu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i530457

Background: This study assessed the level of satisfaction of patients with TB implementation in selected DOTS accredited facilities.

Methodology: A comparative cross-sectional analytic study involving rural and urban areas implementing DOTS for TB in Anambra State was done. A total of 354 respondents (177 per sub population) were enrolled in the study. By exit interview respondents were administered the questionnaire that bordered on services rendered and cost implications of accessing treatment at the facilities.

Results: A total of 162(91.5%) rural respondents were satisfied with appropriateness of working hours compared to 166(93.8%) participants in urban areas. Also 141(79.7%) respondents in rural areas were satisfied with waiting time compared to 155(87.6%) in urban areas and this was statistically significant p<0.004. For the cleanliness of the specimen bottle 138(77.8%) rural respondents compared to 148(83.6%) in urban areas were satisfied and this was statistically significant, p<0.001. Majority of the urban respondents 123(68.9%) were satisfied with respect offered by health workers compared to rural 114(64.4%), and this was also significant, p<0.000. Concerning cost incurred and information given by health workers more urban respondents 5(2.8%) were dissatisfied compared to rural 2(1.1%) though not statistically significant p= 0.378. However, satisfaction was slightly higher in urban (82.8%) compared to rural (80.8%) respondents, while the overall satisfaction in this study was 81.8%.

Conclusion: Patient`s satisfaction is a panacea for successful DOTS implementation. We therefore recommend that satisfaction could be improved by provision patient-centred requests such as provision of multivitamins, transport, food among others to help improve DOTS because it will encourage attendance and adherence with better outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Vaccine Knowledge and Acceptability among Healthcare Providers in Nigeria

Onyeka Chukwudalu Ekwebene, Valentine Chidi Obidile, Precious Chidozie Azubuike, Chioma Phyllis Nnamani, Nehemiah Emono Dankano, Michel Chiedu Egbuniwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i530458

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has posed enormous challenges and has become a burden of morbidity and mortality while severely disrupting economic activities around the world. Vaccines for the disease has been discovered; however, there exists misconceptions and mistrusts among health workers which may constitute barriers to Covid-19 uptake.

Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge and acceptability of the Covid-19 vaccine among health care provider and to determine the association between the socio-demographic variables and Covid-19 acceptability.

Study Design: A snowball sampling technique was relied upon in the distribution of the questionnaires.

Place and Duration: Online questionnaires sent in the form of a link through social media outlets such as Whatsapp, Facebook and emails within four weeks interval.

Methodology: Health care providers in Nigeria aged 18 years and above participated in this study.The analysis was performed using the Statistical Software Package SPSS version 22.0.Four hundred and forty-five respondents filled the questionnaire from the six geopolitical zones of the country.

Results: There was a good knowledge of the Covid-19 vaccination as 411(92.4%) knew about the vaccine. However, only 53.5% of respondents were willing to get vaccinated against the disease. The most identified perceived barrier to covid-19 vaccine acceptance was fear of side effects 309 (69.4%) and there was no association between socio-demographic characteristics and covid-19 vaccine acceptability.

Conclusion: Healthcare providers recommendation and confidence in a vaccine plays an influential role in their patients’ vaccination behaviour. They serve as an important source of information for the general populace and their consultation can also be a key factor in patients’ decision to get vaccinated or not.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlates and Pattern of Psychiatric Morbidity among Patients attending the Dermatological Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Region of Nigeria

Bolaji Otike-Odibi, Chukwuma U. Okeafor, Dasetima D. Altraide

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 61-65
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i630466

Introduction: Higher rates of psychiatric disorders have been reported among patients with dermatological lesions. These problems could negatively impact the quality of life of these patients.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess the psychiatric morbidity among patients attending the dermatology clinic of University Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).  It also sought to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and presence of psychiatric morbidity.

Methodology: The study employed a cross-sectional design, involving ninety patients consecutively recruited from the dermatology clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Consenting patients filled the study questionnaire which was inclusive of a socio-demographic questionnaire and general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ score of ≥3 was considered as having psychiatric morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed at a statistical significance level of 0.05.

Results: The mean age (±Standard deviation) of the patients was 32.3(±13.2) years. The study had a male to female ratio of 1:2.2. Psychiatric morbidity was noticed in 34 patients giving a prevalence rate of 37.8%. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was higher among females (40.3%) in comparison to males (32.1%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.459). Age (P=0.840) and duration of dermatological disorder (P=0.211) showed no significant relationship with psychiatric morbidity.

Conclusion: This study has shown that psychiatric conditions are common among patients with dermatological lesions. Hence it is necessary that mental health care is considered in the routine management of these patients.