Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Immunological Status in Occult Hepatitis B Virus-infected Patients Attending Rivers State University Teaching Hospital

Baribefe Banavule Daniel Koate, Blessing Didia, Tombari Pius Monsi, Zacchaeus Awortu Jeremiah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i830474

Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a rare form of infection that is characterized by the presence of replication-competent HBV DNA in the liver but without detectable HBsAg in the serum.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the comparative levels of immunological variables particularly CD4 counts and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts in occult hepatitis B and HBsAg positive subjects among prospective blood donors in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Nigeria.

Methods: The CD4 count and total and differential WBC counts were analyzed with automated techniques using BD Fascount and Sysmex XP-300 respectively. Data were analyzed as mean (standard deviation) and significance was assumed at 95% confidence interval using student t-test and one-way ANOVA on GraphPad prism.

Results: The mean values for CD4, WBC, LYM (lymphocyte), MXD (differential mixed cells), and NEU (neutrophils) were 607±286 µ/l, 16±24 /l, 1.8±0.55 %, 0.46±0.15 % and 3.1±1.1 % respectively for occult hepatitis B subjects; 609±222 µ/l, 5.4±1.7 /l, 2.3±1.2 %, 0.54±0.31 % and 2.7±1.2 % respectively for HbsAg positive subjects and 823±256 µ/l, 10±5.4 /l, 2.4±1.6 %, 0.69±0.49 % and 6.4±4.7 % respectively for hepatitis B negative subjects. CD4 levels for male and female occult hepatitis B subjects are 729±309 µ/l and 461±190 µ/l respectively; 582±210 µ/l and 643±250 µ/l respectively for HBsAg positive subjects while that of hepatitis B negative subjects were 824±305 µ/l and 821±199 µ/l respectively. OBI showed a significant negative association between differential mixed cells and lymphocytes (r= -0.89 and p= 0.001) alone signifying that increment in former could reduce the latter. Only the HBsAg positive subjects showed a significant positive correlation of age to differential mixed cells (r=0.94 and p=0.000) which imply as the age increase the level of differential mixed cells will rise. Again, the HBsAg positive subjects showed a significant positive correlation between the differential mixed cells against neutrophil and WBC (r=0.53 and p=0.050), (r=0.56 and 0.036) respectively. Smoking and alcohol consumption caused raised levels of CD4 cells in OBI.

Conclusion: This study revealed a significant decrease in CD4 count, increase in total WBC and neutrophil counts while lymphocyte counts were decreased in occult hepatitis B subjects. Gender difference affect the level of CD4 cells and significant correlation were observed especially with the differential mixed cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge on Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent Girls Studying in Grade 8-10 in Private School of Dailekh District, Nepal

Harikala Thapa, Madan Kumar Oli, Saroj Adhikari

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 10-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i830475

Background: Adolescence is a significant period in the life of a woman. The beginning of menstruation represents the girls' mild stone of pubertal development or maturity. Good menstrual hygiene is crucial for health. Lack of proper menstrual hygiene in adolescent period can have an effect on their health. (Abisola Monisola Oladimeji, 2014) Menstrual health issue has remained in dark for a longer period of time in Nepal. Lack of proper education and socio cultural barriers has led to knowledge gap on menstrual hygiene and health amongst adolescent female in Nepal.

Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess the knowledge on menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls studying in grade 8 to 10.

Methodology: This study was conducted in Nayaran Municipality, Dailekh. Study design was descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population was adolescent girls studying in grades 8 to 10 in selected private schools of Dailekh district, Nepal. The sample size in this study was 173 subjects. Data was taken by self-administered questionnaires. Data analysis was done by SPSS, version 21.0.

Major Finding: Only 40.6% of respondents had good knowledge on ideal time to change absorbent. 75.8 % respondents were aware of the importance of bathing during menstruation. Around 83.9 % respondents had good knowledge on significance of using clean clothes during menstruation and more than 88 % respondents had good knowledge on menstrual blood. 40% responded that menstrual blood is unhygienic. Out of five menstrual hygiene related questions, good knowledge was found among 48 % respondents while 52 % had poor knowledge. 10-19 age-group girls had good knowledge on menstrual hygiene than 10-15 years age group. Students of grade 10 had better knowledge among the respondents. Hindu girls had more knowledge than girls of other religion. Similarly, respondents from nuclear family had better knowledge than those of joint family. Higher the monthly income of family, better the knowledge about menstrual hygiene was observed. Girls of parents having higher secondary level education had better knowledge on menstrual hygiene than illiterate, primary and secondary level educated parents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vaccination Hesitancy: The Case of Cervical Cancer Vaccination in Fako Division, Cameroon

C. Neh Fru, Tassang Andrew, David Greenspan, F. Nchang Cho, Mokake Martin, Joseph Livingstone, Tassang Thierry, P. Ngum Fru, Nembulefac Derick

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 32-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i830476

Introduction: The fight against cervical cancer stumbles against resistance to accepting vaccines. Vaccination hesitancy is a worldwide phenomenon. It seems this phenomenon is more amplified in Africa. With the advent of COVID 19, many conspiracy theories against all the vaccines have emanated from various quarters. Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus is no exception to the current dynamics. A study on this topic was carried out in the Fako Division-Cameroon. Structural and individual reasons could explain vaccination hesitancy.

Objective: The objective of this study is to attempt an explanation of why vaccination hesitancy has to do with poor uptake of cervical cancer vaccines.

Methodology: a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in some towns of the Fako Division – Cameroon from 5 to January 20, 2021. Paper-based questionnaires were administered only to those who consented to participate in this study. And chi-square test was estimated to establish the association between participant socioeconomic characteristics and cervical cancer vaccine hesitancy

Results: A total of 250 consecutively enrolled participants were included in the study. Women with a high level of education will readily accept vaccination against cervical cancer. About 71% of our sample does not trust government decisions regarding judgments against cervical cancer. If given a choice between medical treatment and prayers, 62% of our studied population will prefer prayers. There is some degree of bias against female children in our community.

Conclusion: Many components constitute vaccination hesitancy. The corruption of political elites, brainwashing of masses by the new type of churches, self-convictions, ignorance, lack of knowledge on CC, and gender bias are some. They all increase on structural causes: the colonial background and the low socioeconomic status of these countries.