Open Access Case Study

A Case of Acute Lead Toxicity Associated with Siddha Medication

Sandheep Janardhanan, Allwin James, Alagammai Palaniappan, Ramesh Ardhanari

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 13-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1130493

Siddha is an indigenous system of medicine practiced exclusively in South India.Some of these formulations have been postulated to cause heavy metal poisoning,like lead toxicity.  Here we present a case of Siddha medicine induced lead toxicity causing intractable chronic abdominal pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico ADME/T Properties of Quinine Derivatives using SwissADME and pkCSM Webservers

Jean Gonfi M. Mvondo, Aristote Matondo, Dani T. Mawete, Sylvie-Mireille N. Bambi, Blaise M. Mbala, Pierre O. Lohohola

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1130492

Aim: Malaria is among the most devastating and widespread tropical parasitic diseases. To overcome antimalarial drug resistance, new drugs need to be developed. This study is designed to establish the pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity of nine quinine derivatives as potential antimalarial drugs using in silico approaches by SwissADME and pkCSM.

Methodology: The structures of investigated compounds were translated into canonical SMILES format and then submitted to SwissADME web tool that gives free access to physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness of compounds, and pkCSM webserver for predicting and optimizing pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties.

Results: SwissADME mainly used to predict the physicochemical properties of compounds and their drug-likeness revealed that all quinine derivatives have good bioavailability and satisfied the Lipinski’s rule of five. The pkCSM results on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity show  that all investigated compounds have a good pharmacokinetic profile and they are safe since they belong to class 4 of the Globally Harmonized System (300 < Category 4 ≤ 2000 mg/kg/day).

Conclusion: Drug-likeness and ADME/T predictions of nine investigated quinine derivatives revealed that they are good candidates to oral drug formulation and thus they can be used in a broader context of overcoming the development of resistance by Plasmodium protozoans against most of the drugs currently used to treat malaria. As future prospects, further studies on bioevaluation of compounds are needed to elucidate their potential pharmacological activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19: Preventive Strategies among Workers in a Tertiary Health Institution in South-east Nigeria

Jacinta Chinyere Elo-Ilo, Chioma Chetachukwu Ajator, Dorothy Amauche Ezeagwuna, Ahoma Victor Mbanuzuru, Chioma Phyllis Nnamani

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1130494

Background and Aim: Healthcare workers have the highest risk of exposure to COVID-19 infection due to the nature of their occupation which daily exposes them to infectious agents/people with COVID-19. The study aimed to determine the knowledge of healthcare workers towards COVID-19 infection prevention strategies and factors that affect infection prevention against COVID-19.

Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional analytical study conducted in a tertiary health institution. One hundred and ninety-five participants were recruited consecutively into the study. Data was collected using a 13-question semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. The knowledge, perceptions and factors contributing to COVID-19 infection, prevention and control (IPC) were measured. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. The test of significance was set at p-value <0.05.

Results: The knowledge of COVID-19 Infection, Prevention and Control (IPC) was 31.8%, 63.6% of the participants were aware of IPC program at the hospital but majority (74.9%) had not received any training. There was no significant association between knowledge of COVID-19 IPC and sociodemographic characteristics. Less than half of the participants (37.4%) had a good perception of the hospital’s readiness for COVID-19 pandemic, 52.8% reported that breeching IPC rules can cause an outbreak of COVID-19 in the hospital. Lack of resources to fulfil Infection, Prevention and Control need is the single most important contributory factor to the spread of COVID-19 infection.

Conclusion: The knowledge of COVID-19 infection, prevention and control was poor in the study and the majority of the healthcare workers had not received any training regarding Infection, Prevention and Control. Therefore, there is need for the hospital management with the financial backup from the government to train healthcare workers on Infection prevention and control strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Effect of Allium sativum (Garlic) on the Liver of White Rabbits

Osuloye Oluwaseum Olayemi, Olojo Oluwatobi Omotola, Philip Abutu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1130495

Allium sativum commonly referred to as garlic has been known over the years for its medicinal and culinary purposes. It has also been reported to have several toxic effects when used excessively. However, the purpose of this study was to determine the histological effects of Allium sativum (garlic) powder on the liver of white rabbits at different dosages. Twenty rabbits were randomly divided int.o five groups with free access to food and water for a period of four weeks. Four groups B, C, D, and E were fed with garlic supplemented basal diet containing different concentrations of garlic powder i.e. 100mg, 200mg, 500mg, and 1000mg respectively. These groups were called the treated group. Group A was fed with basal diet only and was considered as the control group. The results obtained showed some histological changes such as the presence of cellular necrosis, vacuolations, lipofuscin pigments, pyknosis and nuclear hypertrophy which were as a result of liver glycogen depletion and hepatic cell damage which may be due to relatively high dosage of garlic used in some of the groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eating Habits of Elderly in Aceh-Indonesia and the Associated Demographic Factors

Sufyan Anwar, Maiza Duana, . Marniati

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 36-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1130496

Aims: The study aims to prove the correlation between demographic factors and the eating habits of the elderly in Aceh, Indonesia.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Aceh Barat district, Aceh province-Indonesia between June and October 2019.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out by involving the elderly (age of 60 years or above) in 483 participants. Bivariate analysis was conducted through a chi-square test using SPSS version 21 to answer the research hypothesis.

Results: Four hundred and eighty three (483) elderly people with mean age of 69.76 years were enrolled, of these, 68.9% were women and 58.2% were unemployed. Fifty-nine percent of respondents live in rural areas and 64.39% had good eating habits. Finding unveiled that age had a significant correlation with eating habits (P=0,05), gender did not correlate with eating habits (P>0,05). Occupation correlated with eating habits (P=0.05), and area of residence correlated with eating habits (P=0,05)..

Conclusion: The study concluded that younger age (60-69 years old), employed, and living in urban areas positively contribute to establishing healthy eating habits in the elderly in Aceh. Furthermore, it is necessary to conduct intervention studies in the occupation variable as a modifiable variable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting the Use of Job Aid Posters as a Guide for Malaria Diagnosis among Primary Healthcare Workers in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Abiodun Iluyomade, Kingsley Ngozi, Daniel Chukwuyere Emeto, Manuchimso Charles Akaninwor, Magbagbeola David Dairo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1130497

Introduction: Malaria is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Accurate diagnosis is key for effective management of the disease. Non-adherence to diagnosis guidelines by primary healthcare (PHC) workers affects quality healthcare provisions. Job aid posters help enhance adherence to guidelines for several diseases. Thus, this study determined PHC worker’s use of job aid posters and identified factors affecting its use as a guide for malaria diagnosis.

Methods: The study was a hospital-based cross-sectional survey, a multistage sampling technique was used to select 384 PHC workers from seventy-eight PHC facilities in Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain participant’s socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and adherence to malaria diagnosis guidelines, and factors affecting the use of job aid posters as a guide for malaria diagnosis.  Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression with P-Value=0.05 declared as statistically significant.

Results: Two hundred and forty-four (63.5%) PHC workers were knowledgeable about malaria diagnosis guidelines whereas only 58.1% of the total respondents adhere to the guidelines. Just less than half (45.3%) of participants uses job aid posters always. Knowledge of malaria diagnosis guidelines (AOR = 0.272, 95% C.I = 0.115-0.643), comprehensiveness of job aid poster (AOR = 0.345, 95% C.I = 0.148-0.807), physical integrity of job aid posters (AOR = 0.219, 95% C.I = 0.092-0.522), and positioning of job aid posters (AOR = 5.704, 95% C.I = 2.375-13.67) were significant predictors of use of job aid posters for malaria diagnosis.

Conclusion: the healthcare worker’s adherence to guidelines for malaria diagnosis was inadequate. Provision of comprehensive job aid posters on malaria diagnosis, replacement of damaged ones, and strategic display of the job aid posters is recommended to enhance use and adherence.