Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Biomarkers in Patients Co-Infected with HIV/HBV Attending the Antiretroviral Clinic in a Tertiary Institution

G. B. Baeka, G. A. Isong, B. N. Piakor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1230498

Aim: The level of some biomarkers such as the Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes were checked for in patients who were found to be co infected with HIV/HBV

Study Design: The study was conducted among patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus attending the antiretroviral clinic at the Braith Waite memorial hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The samples and relevant data were gotten between the months of January and March 2019, using a structured questionnaire

Methodology: The Samples were collected from patients infected with HIV attending the Braith Waite memorial hospital on antiretroviral medication. A total number of 98 samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of HBV IgM core antibody using the ELISA method. The statistical analysis was done using a Stata version 16 and the student T-test was used to determine the P value. A total of 98 samples were collected, 66(67.3%) were females and 32(32.6%) of them were males. Of the 98 samples, 5 (5.1%) of them were positive to HIV/HBV co infection of which 3(3.1%) were females and 2(2%) were males. The age range for those co infected was between 29 – 34 years old. The lipid profile and liver enzymes for the positive samples were analyzed. The result showed an increase in the level of LDL, HDL and triglyceride. The analysis for the liver enzymes showed an increase in the level of AST and ALP while the ALT and GGT remained within the healthy range.  The increase in the level of most of the biomarkers, showed that the patients co infected with HIV/HBV were at risk of heart and kidney diseases since they are already immunocompromised. From this result, it shows that patients who are HIV positive should undergo HBV test regularly. Those who are positive should have their biomarkers monitored and put under medication early.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality of Life of Primary Healthcare Centres Physicians in BURAIDAH City 2020, a Study Using WHOQOL-BREF Questionnaire

Mohamad Fahad Alreshoudi, Chandra Sekhar Kalevaru

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1230499

Background: Life of doctors puts them at a high level of challenges and stress which can affect their quality of life. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the Quality Of Life of Primary health care providers by applying a brief version of the World Health Organization questionnaire for assessing Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF). To find the factors which affect the QOL of PHC physicians and know the aspects where it was affecting the health and performance of the Doctors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 186 physicians working in primary health care centers in BURAIDAH city under Ministry Of Health. WHOQOL BREF validated questionnaire was used in both English and Arabic versions. Data was entered and cleaned in SPSS 21.0 version and necessary statistical tests were applied.

Results: In the present study, about 29.6% were females and 70.4% were males. About 66.6% of the study population were in 30-49 years age group and half (48.4%) of them were general practitioners. Mean QOL score in psychological domain (domain 2) was 63.66. In the other three domains of physical health, social relationships and environmental domain (domain 1, 3 & 4) was scoring more than 65. There was a statistically significant association observed between age and physical ,psychological health domains. This association was also seen between marital status and psychological, social domains.

Conclusions: Based on the results, on the whole, the majority of primary health care doctors had a moderate quality of life score to a high quality of life score ranging from 63.66-68.06. Still, there is a scope of improvement in domain 2 (psychological domain). 

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitic Contamination of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Sold in Port Harcourt Metropolis Markets, Rivers State, Nigeria

Le Bari Barine Gboeloh, Itoro Imaobong Sounyo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1230500

Parasitic contamination of fresh fruits and vegetables sold in selected markets in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. was investigated. Oil mill and Creek Road were the two major markets in Port Harcourt metropolis area selected for this study. A total of 216 samples of different types of fruits and vegetables were randomly sampled for parasitological examination using normal saline and zinc sulphate floatation techniques. The results showed that out of the 216 samples of vegetables and fruits examined, 87 (40.3%) were infected. The results were statistically significant (P< 0.05). The parasites identified included Entamoeba coli; Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancyclostoma spp and Fasciola spp. Entamoeba coli was the most prevalent parasite (83.15%) while Ascaris lumbricodes (1.12%), Ancyclostoma spp (1.12%) and Fasciola spp (1.12%) had least prevalence. There was statistical no difference (P>0.05) in prevalence of parasites genus in the two markets. Tomatoes had the highest contamination rate of (10.6%) followed by waterleaf, bitter leaf, green leaf, pumpkin leaf, pear, orange, and scent leaf with the prevalence rate of 9.3%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 3.2%, 1.9%, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively. Produce contaminated with intestinal parasites poses a serious health challenge to the consumers if they are not properly washed before consumption. Personal hygiene and proper washing of fresh fruit and vegetable before consumption will reduce the prevalence of food-borne parasitic infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania-Major in Libya

Safa Sharfuldeen, Badereddin Annajar, Hamida Al-Dwibe, Said El- Zubi, Ahmeda Benjama

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1230501

Aims: To describes the histopathological characteristics of skin lesions from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in northwestern Libya and correlate with clinical presentation.

Study Design: case series study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried on patients referred by the region's healthcare institutions and those presented at the Tripoli Central Hospital or the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control between July 2017 to January 2018.

Methodology: The study included 38 patients, aged between 1-73 years, of both sexes, and came from 18 endemic areas in North-Western of Libya. The inclusion criteria were clinical symptoms and microscopic visualization of the parasite on a Giemsa-stained skin smear, in addition, clinical by the slit and smear technique, polymerase chain reaction for L. major. In addition, statistical analysis was conducted for the Histopathological examination.

Results: The study found that 36 (94%) of the cases studied were positive by the slit and smear technique, and 32 (88.9%) were positive by PCR for L. major. Five histopathological patterns were observed: (i) diffuse cellular reaction without necrosis (25%); (ii) diffuse cellular reaction with necrosis (31.3%); (iii) exudative and necrotic granulomatous reaction (25%); (iv) exudative granulomatous reaction without necrosis (9.3%); (v) exudative-tuberculoid reaction with typical tuberculoid granuloma (organized) (9.3%). Inflammatory cellular infiltration ranged from mild to severe. Lymph plasmacytosis and lymph histiocytosis were predominant (34.4% and 21.7%, respectively). Necrosis was diffuse or local. The clinical features were correlated with this histological pattern. Epidermal changes included acanthosis, exocytosis, spongiosis, hyperkeratosis, and atrophy.

Conclusion: The histopathological changes observed in CL caused by L. major in North-Western of Libya are characterized by an intense diffuse inflammatory reaction in the dermis with the predominance of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Overall, the granulomatous presentation was the main one. Various clinical forms, including papule, plaque, erythematous nodule with hemorrhagic crust, or violaceous nodule with adherent crust and ulcerated nodule, are significantly correlated with the histopathological stages, whereas disease progression could be related to age. The histopathological diagnosis of CL caused by L. major has a sensitivity of 78% relative to PCR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transitioning Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired HIV from Paediatric to Adult Centered Care: Caregivers’ Perspective

Chigozirim Ogubuike, Eme Olukemi Asuquo, Ajibola Alabi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1230502

Aim: To investigate caregivers’ attitude towards transitioning HIV-positive adolescents from paediatric to adult centered care as well as understanding their perspective of transition inhibitors and facilitators.

Study Design: We used a descriptive qualitative design and purposively selected principal caregivers of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years with perinatally acquired HIV who had been attending the paediatric infectious diseases clinic for at least 12 months before the study.

Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study was conducted from August 2020 to November 2020.

Methodology: We included principal caregivers whose wards were not cognitively impaired, whose HIV serostatus had    been disclosed to them and who had been attending the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital paediatric infectious diseases clinic for at least 12 months before the onset of the study. Fifteen In-depth interviews were conducted and data was analyzed using the thematic analysis method with Atlas ti data qualitative software version 7.5.21. The sample size was determined when data saturation was reached.

Results: Most principal caregivers did not understand their role and were not involved in preparing their wards for the transition to adult care. Perceived inhibitors to transition were anxiety on severing the long-term relationship with the paediatric health care team and concern that adult physicians may not be as caring as those in the paediatric clinic. Seropositive caregivers suggested that taking their wards along with them to their appointment at the adult clinic would facilitate transition. 

Conclusion: Principal caregivers were unaware of their roles in the transition process, healthcare providers should actively involve and educate them to ensure a smooth transitioning to the adult centered care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Relation to Age in the Urban Population from Chandigarh, India

Manjula Mehta, Sonia Bhonchal Bhardwaj, Jyoti Sharma

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1230504

Background: Intestinal parasitic infection is a global health problem particularly in the developing countries with different prevalence rates in different regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in different age groups in the urban population of Chandigarh, India.

Materials and Methods: The retrospective study included stool samples 504 in number from human subjects from Chandigarh. Unstained wet saline mount preparations of stool sample were done to detect eggs or larvae and iodine wet mount to detect ova/ cysts of tapeworm, Enterobius, Ascaris, Giardia, Trichuris and Hookworm.

Results: A high prevalence rate of intestinal parasitosis (73%) was seen. The age group distribution shows a higher prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the young population (age group 21-30 years and 31-40 years). Ascariasis was the most common parasitic infection observed.

Conclusion: The present study reveals a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the study population and calls for long term control measures to improve their sanitary and living conditions.