Open Access Short Research Article

Role of Training Sessions on Cervical Cancer Preventive Strategies in Improving Knowledge and Attitude of Accredited Social Health Activists

Nilanchali Singh, Shalini Rajaram, Bindiya Gupta, Anita Mendiratta, Sanjay Singh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 13-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330507

Background: India has the world’s largest load of cervical malignancy. A lot of it can be attributed to lack of cervical cancer screening awareness among the general population. The Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) are grass root workers who have good reach in the remote areas, where health care facilities are lacking. Training these ASHAs may increase the general awareness about cervical cancer screening. The aim of the study was to train ASHA workers via lectures and question answer sessions and assess the training with pre and post tests.

Methods: We organized two training programs of 500 ASHA workers in two tertiary care hospitals with aim of improving their knowledge and attitude about cervical cancer screening which will eventually improve their practice of training women in general population. It comprised of five lectures in language they understand, slogans, posters, question answer session etc. A test comprising of 17 questions was conducted before and after session to check their knowledge and attitude. 

Results: There was an overall improvement of 35% in knowledge of the ASHAs i.e. 48% answers were correct in pre-test and 78% were correct in post-test. Questions were pertaining to symptomatology, risk factors, screening methods, their utility and prerequisites of performing the screening tests, when and how often to repeat. Improvement was seen in all the areas. There was improvement in attitude too and most of them wanted themselves (98%), their relatives (100%) and the woman within their area (98%) to be screened for cancer cervix.

Conclusion: It was a small initiative and successful result was obtained after the training session of ASHAs.  These grass root workers may act as key link of awareness for cervical cancer prevention. They live in same community as the client and therefore, have better repo and communication as compared to medical personnel. Though, this study showed improved knowledge and motivation in ASHAs yet the impact on general population needs further evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Treatment Failure: A Real-World Single Center Experience

Shereen Nabih Sarhan, Samy A. Khodeir, Mamdouh A. Gabr

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330506

Background: Treatment failure with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is associated with worsening of liver disease especially in cirrhotic patients. Moreover, data on retreatment of HCV genotype 4 patients (G4) with DAA failure are still very limited, since they are under- represented in most clinical trials.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of retreatment of Egyptian HCV G4 DAA failure patients based on the use of a new DAA class from currently available first- generation DAA regimens other than the patient had relapsed to.

Methods: 29 Egyptian HCV G4 DAA failure patients were retreated by switch to a new DAA class from first- generation DAA regimens than the patient had relapsed to independent of RAS testing. 25 out of these 29 patients completed retreatment and 4 patients were lost for follow–up.

Results: Among other risk factors, by logistic regression analysis, only older age, high CTP score and high base-line viral load were independent predictors of DAA failure among our cohort. Also SOF/RBV regimen was the most common prior DAA regimen associated with treatment failure (48.3%).

All our DAA failure patients were cirrhotics that made prompt retreatment of them a rescue strategy to halt viral replication and disease progression.

After retreatment, 22 (88%) of the 25 patients who completed retreatment achieved SVR12 and the remaining 3 (12%) failed.

These 3 patients completed a second retreatment, one achieved SVR and the other 2 relapsed again (re-relapsers)

Conclusion: The overall SVR rate (88%) demonstrated in this real –world study, clearly shows that, the retreatment policy of DAA failure patients by switch to – or addition of a new drug class independent of RAS testing is a good retreatment option, that may be of importance for many areas of the world with no or difficult access to RAS testing or second-generation rescue regimens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypertension in the Adult Population in Côte d’Ivoire: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Ekra Kouadio Daniel, Okoubo Guillaume, Orsot Tetchi, Ekou Kokora Franck

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330508

Objectives: To estimate the current national prevalence of hypertension and to identify associated factors, in a context of increasing cardiovascular diseases and rampant urbanization in Côte d'Ivoire.

Methodology: This was a secondary analysis of data from the survey on the prevalence and characteristics of diabetes in Côte d'Ivoire. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 3198 adults aged 20 to 79 years, in the twenty health regions of Côte d'Ivoire from 23 November to 22 December 2017. Risk factors were identified by binary stepwise logistic regression using Stata version 15 software.

Results: The survey population was predominantly female (55%) and lived in urban areas (55.38%). The prevalence of hypertension in Côte d'Ivoire was 39.92% [95% CI : 37.28 - 42.62]. Independent of other factors, hypertension in adults is associated with age, place of residence, education level, marital status, income and nutritional status. However, the consumption of fruits and vegetables is protective of hypertension.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in Côte d'Ivoire is very high with a greater burden in the older populations. Interventions targeting the associated modifiable risk factors are needed to correct this alarming epidemiological situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women in the First Antenatal Care (ANC) Clinic Visit in St. Mary's Hospital Okpoga, Okpokwu Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria

P. N. Atser, E. B. Iorliam, M. Ochogwu, J. Ondoma, S. Wuam

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330509

Aims: The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending St. Mary's Hospital Okpoga, Benue State, Nigeria, with respect to demographic factors, socio-economic and underlying medical determinants among pregnant women.

Methodology: A retrospective study design was used for the study. The study of 858 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care (ANC) between March 2019 to March 2020 was done. Their records were retrieved from the Records Department and the ANC unit using a standard proforma.

Results: The findings revealed that prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women at booking was (55.2%). The highest prevalence of anaemia by age range 15-20 years was (62.2%), by educational status, highest prevalence was among those with no formal education (84.3%), by occupation highest prevalence was among house wives (59.9%). By underlying medical condition – severe form of parasitaemia (78.5%), by degree of severity, mild form of anaemia 74.1%, was most prevalent. By parity, it was highest among multiparous women (66.9%), by habitants it was highest among rural habitants (73.9%) while prevalence by gestational age it was highest among pregnant mothers who were in their 3rd trimester (60%) in the first antenatal care (ANC) visit.

Conclusion: Pregnant mothers need to book early for antenatal clinic to access services such as intermittent preventive treatment, uptake of iron supplements and anthelmintics. They should also be empowered economically to access ANC in order to reduce the problem of anaemia in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Edo State, Nigeria

Obi Peter Adigwe, Moses Musa Ebohon, Henry Omoregie Egharevba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330510

The people of Edo State of Nigeria have a long history of dependence on traditional medicine as a primary source and first line of action for their healthcare needs. Efforts have been made by various national and subnational governments towards integrating the TM practice for the benefit of its citizens with little progress. The slow progress is partly because of dearth in the knowledge, attitude and practice of the practitioners. A descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at highlighting the demography, attitude and approach as well as the exposing the key gaps in the practice and expectation of the practitioners from the different stakeholders, was carried out. The survey study was conducted using a standardized structured questionnaire. The outcome showed that 90% of practitioners were within the age bracket of 25 and 65 years, and majority (66%) were of male gender and, about 94% and 78% were literate and self-employed, respectively. About 30% have being in practice for less than 10 years and about 44% sees less than 10 patients per week. The major diseases treated include malaria (66%), stomach ulcer (62%), cough and sore throat (54%), diabetes (54%), gonorrhoea/sexually transmitted diseases (52%) and menstrual pain (50%). About 28% claimed to have subjected some of their products to laboratory testing but only about 4% of respondents had NAFDAC registered products. Edo TMPs have high expectation for government and partners supports in strengthening TM practices through the provision modern production facility, supports for medicinal plant gardens, laboratory testing, training on best practices and better legislation for citizens’ patronage.