Open Access Minireview Article

Anti-Leishmanial Effect of Oral Zinc Sulfate in Acute Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Mini-review

Tagwa A. M. Salih, Bashir A. Yousef

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 26-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430515

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection caused by various Leishmania species, with a specific predisposition of each species into a particular geographical area. Cutaneous lesions can either be a single, limited skin lesion or multiple, large, locally destructions skin lesions.  Several therapies are proposed for CL, but severe side effects, high costs, and incomplete efficacy make researchers find replaceable therapies. Since the usage of zinc sulfate as a therapeutic agent has a long history in treating of various dermatological diseases, Zinc plays an essential role in the development and function of innate immunity cells (neutrophils and natural killer cells), which play significant roles in killing parasites. It also has a significant inhibitory effect on key enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism and virulence of L. major and L.tropica. Therefore, its use as an oral therapy for CL might represent a significant addition to the armamentarium of anti-leishmanial medications.  This review summarizes and discusses previous and recent findings regarding the therapeutic roles of oral zinc sulfate in cutaneous leishmaniasis therapy. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria from Blood Smears: A Four-Year Retrospective Study from the Jean Claude Handrault Hospital, Southern Gabon

Hilaire Moundounga Kenguele, Barclaye Ngossanga, Thièry Ndong Mba, Angélique Kombila, Cyrille Bisseye

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430511

Background: Malaria remains a public health concern in developing nations despite the reduction of its burden worldwide. In Gabon, the prevalence of malaria has declined in major urban cities due to the implementation of the preventive strategies recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the few studies conducted in rural areas have revealed that malaria still poses threats. The scarcity of data on rural areas of Gabon in general, and the Haut-Ogooué province, in particular, has led us to conduct the present study. The main objective of this four-year retrospective study was to determine the slide positivity rate of malaria at JC ANDRAULT hospital of Mounana, Southern Gabon.

Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical data from malaria suspected patients were collected from laboratory annual reports and analyzed.

Results: The results revealed a mean annual prevalence of 67.43%, no statistical difference was recorded among the years. The mean malaria cases of female (896) patients were nearly double of that of male patients (467), and patients aged 5-18, and older than 18 were the most affected; both results were found to be statistically significant. Although two peaks malaria cases were recorded during the great rainy season (482) and small dry season (476), the difference among seasons was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that malaria transmission is high in the study area and thus preventive measures should be strengthen and extended to the older patients. This study is the first one to ever report the prevalence of malaria in a rural area of the Haut-Ogooué province.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Desires and Family Size Preferences of HIV Positive Women Accessing Care in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

Awuri Babema-Igonikon, Manuchimso Charles Akaninwor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430512

Introduction: Women living with HIV may or may not intend to bear children. They may also have different preferences in terms of family sizes. The desire of HIV positive women to bear children and their family size preferences has significant implication for horizontal and vertical transmission of this incurable disease. This study, therefore, aims to determine fertility preferences and their predictors among HIV positive women accessing care at UPTH, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 402 women within the reproductive age (15-49 years) who were on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). Participants were recruited using systematic sampling method and were interviewed with an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain participant’s socio-demographic characteristics, desire for children, use, demand and choice of contraception and reproductive characteristics. With SPSS version 20, data was summarised as descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used to test for association.

Results: The study showed that 81.8% of respondents desire to have children out of which 96 (29.3%) desired one to two children, 169 (51.5%) desired three to four children, and 18 (5.5%) wanted five or more children. Factors such as age, marital status, and disclosure of Sero-status to partner were found to be associated with family size preferences (p<0.05).

Conclusion: HIV positive women in Port Harcourt have high fertility desires and moderate family sizes preferences; thus, indicating the need for more support and involvement of the government and relevant stake holders in ensuring better access to ART services in the country. More resources should be channelled towards provision of effective preventive medications and services, people who live with HIV (PLHIVs) should be continuously and adequately sensitised with the necessary knowledge on how to make healthy reproductive decisions, as well as on available practicable reproductive options for HIV-infected women should be made efficient, and easily accessible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay Coproantigen among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending Selected Hospitals in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Askira M. Umoru, A. B. Samaila, S. M. Panda, M. Y. Iliyasu, U. M. Kadaura, M. A. Umar, H. S Hamafylto, U. A. Bukar, H. U. Wakawa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430513

Background: Cryptosporidium species are intestinal parasites that infect both humans and animals; it causes cryptosporidiosis which usually resulted to diarrhea especially among those with impaired immunity. It was observed that enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) be ascertain was never been used as one of the techniques in the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in Maiduguri, Borno state.

Materials and Methods: Four hundred stool and blood samples were collected in four selected hospitals in the study area. Stool samples were analyzed by Enzyme link immunosorbent assay to detect fecal Cryptosporidium antigen, while the blood samples were analyzed with Partec sysmex ® flow cytometric machine for CD4 T-lymphocyte counts.

Results: Demographically, female are 275 while male 125 in number. The result of the stool samples have shown that, of the four hundred samples, seventy nine (79) patients  were positive for Cryptosporidium  species with an infection rate of 19.8%. According to gender, females have the highest infection rate of 14.25% while males 5.5%.based on age, patients between the ages of 20-39 have the highest prevalence of 9.5% followed by 40-59 with 7.5% and lastly 0-19 and >60 old are1.25 and 1.5% respectively. Traders (businessmen and women) demonstrated the highest infection rate of 8.0% followed by housewives 6.25%, civil servants 4.25% and lastly student and farmer with 1.0 and 0.25% respectively. In terms of CD4-T-lymphocyte count, those with CD4 <200cells/µl has an occurrence rate of 8.25% followed by 201-499 with 7.0% and >500 with 4.5%. on the bases of clinical details, the results have shown that patients with diarrhea has a prevalence of 13.0% while those without diarrhea has 6.75%, however, according to the hospitals the patients attended, the result has that, USUMH has 7.0%.Followed by UMTH 6.5%, SSHM 3.75%, and MSMH 2.5% respectively.

Conclusion: It was concluded that those with cd4 count bellow 200 are at risk of contacting the parasites and hence is one of the causes of diarrhea among HIV patients. It is recommended that proper hygiene practice should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Measurement of Enteric Bacteria Load From Public Surfaces in Restaurants in Nnewi-Town

Chioma Maureen Obi, Onyekachi Patrick Amakor, Ifeanyi Onyema Oshim, Monique Ugochinyere Okeke, Barbara Ogochukwu Ochiabuto

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430516

Background: Bio-contamination of surfaces of various items and equipment used by the public is the main cause of disease epidemic. Most outbreaks of infection associated with inanimate objects are caused by items that should be sterile but have been contaminated and are generally known as fomites.

Objective: This study is to evaluate the presence of enteric bacteria from different public surfaces in restaurants in Nnewi town.

Methodology: Selected public surfaces in eight (8) randomly selected restaurants were analyzed for the presence of enteric bacteria via culture and biochemical tests following a standard criterion. The sample sites included; tables, chairs, counters, sinks and walls. Also, Disc susceptibility test were carried out on the isolates using conventional antibiotics.

Results: Eighty-eight (88) bacteria isolates were isolated and identified, and S. aureus showed the highest prevlence 29(33%), followed by E. coli 15(17%), Proteus spp 13(15%), Klebsiella spp 12(14%), Pseudomonas spp 10(11%), and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci 9(10%). Tables and sinks were the most contaminated fomites each constituting of 19(22%) of the total bacteria isolated in this study. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp and Staphylococcus aureus, were the most resistant isolates to the antibiotics, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci was the most sensitive isolate. Out of the ten antibiotics tested ceporex was found to be the least effective with about 100% resistance by the isolates while ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics with 0% resistance by the bacteria isolates.

Conclusion: the study has shown that public surfaces in restaurant can easily be contaminated with a variety of bacterial contaminants that may be multi-drug resistant bacteria strains posing as a possible public health issue.