Open Access Original Research Article

Medicine Usage Behavior among Common People of Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Md. Monirul Islam, Md. Imran Nur Manik, Abu Zobayed, Fatema Tabassum, Furhatun Noor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1630522

Medication usage behavior of people is an important concern for health authorities worldwide. This study was aimed to find the prevalence of self-medication, perception about drug storage, dosage regimen, side effects and missing doses of prescribed medications among people of Bangladesh. The study also aimed at the different factors that regulate the above-mentioned behavior of people from different regions of the country. This cross-sectional study was performed using an online questionnaire form that was distributed randomly among the people. A total of 1028 respondents took part in the survey. Different statistical operations were done on the responses and the results were presented were using tables and graphs. Among the participants, 31.52% often practiced self-medication and 26.94% did it rarely. There was a significant correlation between self-medication and educational qualification (p=0.023) and residence (p<0.001) variables. The tendency to not completing the dosage regimen is high in villages (44%) than urban (35%) and semi-urban (38%) areas. The rate of not recovering the missing doses is higher (40%) among the people with a low level of education than the educated people (27%). This study showed a significant correlation among medicines usage behavior and educational qualification and residential area of the participants. The policymakers should take steps to increase awareness about the safe use of medicines among common people of rural area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticidal Activities of Leaf Methanol Extract of Clerodendrum polycephalum Baker against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

F. B. Adewoyin, A. B. Odaibo, C. A. Elusiyan, J. M. Agbedahunsi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1630523

Aim: In a view to determining the capacity of Clerodendrum polycephalum to control mosquitoes, the methanol extract of the leaf was investigated for insecticidal activities using three species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Methodology: The leaves of C. polycephalum were collected, dried and extracted with methanol.   Mosquito larvae were exposed to different concentrations for 24/48h. and sublethal concentrations (L25, 50, 75) of the extract to determine larvicidal activity and monitor growth and development respectively. Twenty (20) blood-fed female Aedes aegyti mosquitoes were allowed to lay eggs on treated filter papers for antioviposition bioassay. The crude extract was separated into N-hexane, Dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, ethanol fractions using Vacuum Liquid Chromatography to determine the active fraction.

Results: Results showed that larval mortalities were in the order C. quiquefasciatus>A. gambiae>A. aegypti with effective concentration ranging from 250 – 8000 ppm. Mortalities at 48hr were significantly different (p<0.05) from mortalities at 24h. Of the four fractions obtained, ethanol fraction gave the highest larval mortality of 100% at 2000 ppm. Larval duration for all the three species of mosquitoes exposed to the crude extract varied between 2.25±0.5 and 3.25±0.5 days. As Antioviposition Index increased from 46.4 - 89.9, percent hatching of mosquito eggs deceased from 87.25 – 67.5% with increasing concentration.

Conclusion: The extract of C. polycephalum was found to contain insecticidal compounds which are soluble in polar solvent. The plant could be exploited in mosquito control programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Naira note: Potential Environmental Material for Transmitting Bacterial Pathogens among Food Dealers in Umuahia, Nigeria

Ekene S. Odo, Gloria N. Ebe, Michael N. Umeh, Daniel A. Nwaubani, Israel C. Omekara

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1630524

Inanimate objects can serve as environmental vehicles for transmitting pathogenic bacteria among individuals in the population. Our study revealed that of the 72 naira notes examined, 58 samples representing 80.6% had bacterial contaminants. The bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (70.8%), Salmonella spp. (51.4%), Escherichia coli (44.4%), Shigella spp. (22.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (18.1%), and Proteus spp. (1.4%). The naira notes examined were all obtained from food dealers particularly fish sellers, food vendors, and meat sellers. The presence of these bacterial pathogens on naira notes handled by those food dealers is an important public health hazard as they can contaminate food leading to foodborne diseases and intoxications. Our study found that lower denominations of currency notes (naira), were mostly contaminated by these pathogens and this could be as a result of their frequent use in daily transactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Malaria on some Haematological Parameters among Pregnant Women in Delta State, Nigeria

B. O. Foghi, F. O. Nduka, S. O. Nzeako

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1630525

Aim: To determine the effect of malaria parasitaemia on some haematological parameters of pregnant women in Delta State, Nigeria.

Study Design: The experiment is a vertical survey of pregnant women.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in five designated Local Government Area in Delta State, Nigeria. They include Ughelli South, Ughelli North, Udu, Uvwie and Ethiope East Local Government Area, between January-August 2021.

Methodology: Vein puncture technique was used to obtain 5ml of blood from 1000 pregnant women in the five selected government hospital in Delta State. Malaria parasite examination was done using thin and thick blood films, following standard parasitological techniques. Haematological parameters comprising packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocyte and basophils were determined and CD4 count was done using flow cytometry. Socio economic data was obtained with the use of structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using student T-test and Anova.

Results: Out of the 1000 pregnant women examined, 624 (62.4%) tested positive for malaria. Those with secondary education had the highest prevalence where 234 (23.4%) examined and 202 (86.3%) infected. Data revealed that married women and artisans had very high infections of  (70.9%) and  (78.7%) respectively.  There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the level of PCV, HB, TWBC, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Monocytes and CD4 count of those infected when compared to those uninfected. Women with 1+ve Plasmodium count had CD4 count of 712.68 ± 12.23, those with 2+ve Plasmodium count had CD4 count 628.88±9.11, while those with 3 +++ve Plasmodium count had CD4 count of 578.71±2.10.

Conclusion: Plasmodium parasitaemia had influenced the haematological parameters of pregnant women in the study. Pregnant women should be advice on the proper use of preventive strategies which include intermittent preventive treatment IPTp and the proper use of insecticide treated bed net.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Transmitted Helminths and Plasmodium falciparum Co-infections among School Children in Bugesera District, Rwanda: Implications for National Control Programs

Umwanankundi Marcelline, Mazigo D. Humphrey, Tumusiime David, Mucumbitsi Joseph, Arpita Sharma, Barugahare John Banson

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 30-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1630527

Soil Transmitted Helminths and Plasmodium infections are ubiquitous with morbidity and mortality within the tropical and subtropical regions. However, the extent and consequences of STH-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths and Plasmodium coinfection, and, the impact thereof among school children in Bugesera District of Eastern Rwanda.

Study Design: Cross Sectional Survey

Place and Duration of Study: The survey was conducted in Bugesera district, Eastern Rwanda, between May and December 2020.

Methodology: The survey was conducted among children between ages 5 and 18 years, across 21 randomly selected primary schools. Stool samples were collected and screened for soil transmitted helminths using Kato-Katz, while finger-prick blood samples were examined under the microscope to determine Plasmodium infection.

Results: Overall the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Hookworm and P. falciparum was 4.43%, 0.76%, 0.16% and 3.15% respectively. On the other hand, 36.15% were co-infected with A. lumbricoides and P. falciparum. Surprisingly, the coinfection was higher 41.79%, (P<0.001) in girls than the overall coinfection prevalence.

Conclusion: Helminthiasis and malaria remain dominant, in spite of the continuing and tremendous national control programs. The strikingly surprising higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides-P. falciparum co-infection in girls calls for additional investigations.