Open Access Original Research Article

Erythrocytic Antioxidant Enzymes, Plasma Malondialdehyde and Haemoglobin Levels in Plasmodium Falciparum Infected Malaria Patients in Lagos, Nigeria

Ugochukwu Okechukwu Ozojiofor, Paul Gbenga Olawale, Ebipade Kereakede, Abba Umar Hassan, Kingsley Onuh, Ada Imelda Oyong, Kelechi Chigbu David

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1830532

This study investigated the effect of malaria parasitaemia on Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes oxidative stress biomarkers and haemoglobin levels. Seventy (70) human subjects of fifty (50) P. falciparum positive and twenty (20) control subjects between the ages of 10-60 years were selected for this study. Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy were used to identify P. falciparum. The samples were matched based on age, sex and level of parasitaemia. Samples of blood were collected for the determination of P. falciparum, level of parasitaemia, anti-oxidant assay and haemoglobin levels; to assess the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein (PRO), reduced glutathione (GSH), haemoglobin and Parasite density. Haemoglobin level was determined using a Coulter A-T Pierce haematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Inc. Fullerton, CA, USA). This study showed that the mean level of PRO, CAT, MDA and SOD was significantly higher among the P. falciparum positive patients to those in the control while GPx level was lower, also, the mean level of HGB was significantly lower in the P. falciparum positive patients to those in the control. MDA, SOD, GSH and PRO level were higher among age group (10-20) in the P. falciparum infected patients and lower in the control subjects when compared to other age groups. MDA, SOD and PRO level were higher in the males than the females in both the malaria positive and controls. This study indicates that high parasitaemic patients are at greater risk of anaemia and oxidative stress compared to low parasitaemic ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Two Antibiotics for the Management of Secondary Bacterial Infection in Goats Clinically Affected by Peste des Petits Ruminants

Ijeoma Chekwube Chukwudi, David Ikechukwu Eguji, Olalekan Taiwo Jeremiah, Boniface Maduka Anene

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1830533

Aims: Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR) is a major viral disease that poses a challenge to small ruminant farming. Its natural occurrence has been complicated by secondary bacterial infection which has led to an increase in morbidity and mortality rates. This study reports the management outcome of natural PPR-infected goats using two types of antibiotics in Nsukka metropolis of Enugu State Nigeria.

Methodology: Goats (N=24) were confirmed to be suffering from PPR based on clinical signs and using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The animals were divided into two groups. Group A was treated with 20% oxytetracycline (N= 10) and group B with procaine penicillin and streptomycin combination (penstrept) (N= 14) injection. Clinical signs, recovery and survivability, temperature, haematology [Packed cell volume (PCV); haemoglobin concentration (Hbconc); red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts] and some serum biochemical profiles [alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate transaminase (AST); total protein (TP); Albumin; urea; creatinine; potassium and sodium] were used to assess the efficacy of the antibiotics using standard techniques.

Results: The mean temperature, RBC, WBC and urea values of the PPR-infected goats were above their reference ranges, mean albumin values were below the reference range while mean Hbconc, PCV, AST, ALT, TP and creatinine values were within their reference range before the commencement of treatment. Following treatment, clinical signs cleared in 20% and 35.7% of the goats treated with oxytetracycline and penstrep respectively. Death was recorded in 20% and 15% of goats treated with oxytetracycline and penstrep respectively before the end of treatment. Penstrep-treated group showed improvement in their haematological profile.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, the use of penstrep in the management of PPR-infected goats gave a better result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Infection and Malaria Parasite Density among Under Five Children: A Case Study of Dunukofia Rural Community in Anambra State, Nigeria

O. A. Okeke, C.C. Igboka, N. P. Udeh, I. O. Nnatuanya, V. N. Elosiuba, C. C. Nwadike, A. C. Imakwu, P. I. Afoemezie, C.C. Egwuagu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1830534

Aim: Malaria still remains an overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The study was carried out to evaluate malaria prevalence amongst children less than five years old. 

Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out. The study adopted a retrospective descriptive survey using the hospital records and diagnostic cross sectional survey by examination of blood samples across three variables: gender, age group and mosquito net usage.

Duration: The study was done in 2021 from the month of March to April in the rural community. 

Methodology: Parasitological diagnosis was with Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2-based malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy of giemsa-stained blood smears. Demographic information was collected using questionnaire.

Results: Three hundred (300) children aged less than five years malaria infection status was investigate, 174 (58.00% ) of them were females while 126 (42.00%. ) were males. Twenty one percent (21.00%) of the respondents are <1 year, 23.33% (70) of them are between the ages of 2 to 3 years, while 55.67% (167) were 4 years and above. Current malaria prevalence was higher with microscopy (67.33%) than that of RDT (23.33%).  Also, previous RDT results showed that there was a higher prevalence (73.56%) of malaria parasites in females than males (58.73%). The microscopy results showed that males had a higher prevalence (38.10%) of malaria parasites than females (12.64%). Overall gender result also revealed that males had a higher prevalence (96.83%) of malaria parasites than females (86.21%). There was a significant difference in the prevalence result with gender (P<0.05). Females had higher parasite density (28.05±15.390) than males (23.22±19.171), there was no significant difference (P>0.05). It further revealed that children from 4 years and above had higher intensity (29.68±17.357) while those of 1 year and below had the least (14.89±16.069). However, there was no significant difference in the malaria parasite among the age groups of patients (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was still high in Dunukaofia, Anamba State, Nigeria despite various control measures and interventions put in place by WHO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Educational Intervention to Improve the Knowledge, Attitude, Practices of Health Care Professionals and Students Regarding the Pharmacovigilance in Tertiary Care Hospitals

M. Pramod Kumar, T. Sasi Kumar, C. Indira, K. Gayatri, B. Hima Bindhu, A. Arjun Kumar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 30-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1830535

Introduction: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is any noxious, unintended, and undesired effect of a drug, which occurs at the doses which are used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy, which is reported by ‘‘the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem” known as PV. ADRs are significantly underreported worldwide. A KAP survey usually conducted to collect information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about general and/or specific topics of a particular population.

Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the KAP studies on the educational intervention to improve the knowledge, attitude, practice of health care professionals and students regarding the pharmacovigilance in tertiary care hospitals. To evaluate, assess and evaluate the measures the knowledge, attitude and practice of PV among students and Health Care Professionals in tertiary care hospital of India.

Methods: Pharmacists and HCPs were asked to complete a paper-based 21 item questionnaire.

Results: A total of 250 pharmacists received the questionnaire and 214 agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 85.6%. In knowledge, component of ADR were known by 71.2% and the term PV and ADR were answered correctly (97.3%). In practice 55.9% attended the PV workshop and 88.8% were willing to implement ADR reporting in practice.

Conclusion: Most of the participants had relatively better knowledge and practice towards PV and ADR reporting. Majority of the health care professional felt ADR reporting to be important. The study also shows, after counseling to them we got better response and results than before. The finding of our study suggests that there is scope for improving the ongoing Pharmacovigilance activities in India. There is a need for continuing educational initiatives for pharmacist and other health care professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Tuberculosis Case Surveillance at Kano Central Correctional Center, North-west Nigeria: A Need for Routine Active Case Findings for TB in Nigerian Correctional Centers

M. Tukur, B. Odume, M. Bajehson, C. Dimpka, S. Useni, C. Ogbudebe, O. Chukwuogo, N. Nwokoye, C. Dim, D. Nongo, R. Eneogu, T. Odusote, O. Oyelaran, I. Umar, C. Anyaike

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1830536

Aim: To demonstrate the need for routine active TB case finding in Nigerian correctional centers through a TB case surveillance intervention at the largest correctional centre in the most populous state in Nigeria by KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation Nigeria.

Study Design: It was a retrospective review of public health intervention data derived from the mass TB screening of Kano central correctional centre inmates in Kano state, Nigeria. Methodology: A digital X-ray with artificial intelligence (AI) was used for mass TB screening of 1,967 consenting inmates at the Kano central correctional centre in Kano state, Nigeria, from 21st September to 2nd October 2020. Participants with CAD4TB score ≥ 60 had a GeneXpert assessment of their sputa for TB diagnosis. Where sputum production was not possible, or GeneXpert result was negative, expert clinical evaluation of the presumptive radiogram was carried out by experienced radiologist. Data from the project were extracted and analysed for this report. Proportions and means were compared with Fisher Exact test and Student t-test, respectively. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Overall, 1,967 inmates were screened for TB and 92 (4.7%) presumptive were identified - males (4.8%, 91/92), females (1.9%, 1/92). Out of the 92 presumptive, 21 males were diagnosed as TB cases giving a TB prevalence of 1.1% among the inmates and 22.8% among presumptive. One of the TB cases had multi-drug resistant TB. The number needed to screen (NNS) was 94. All TB cases were enrolled in treatment.

Conclusion: The prevalence of TB at the Kano central correctional centre during the mass TB screening project was high. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme of Nigeria should accelerate the planned paradigm shift from passive to active case-finding for TB in Nigerian correctional centers.