Open Access Case Study

Waardenburg Syndrome Type II, Associated with Atrial Septal Defect and Rocker Bottom Foot in a New Born – A Rare Case Presentation

Jeffy J. K., . Satyendra, Jaiprakash Narayan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1930537

Background: There are a number of syndromes with a combination of pigmentary abnormalities, hearing abnormalities and other defects. One among these pigmentary syndromes is waardenburg syndrome, which is further classified into four types. All these types show marked variability even within pedigrees.

Case-Report: We are reporting a case of Waardenburg syndrome type 2, with an unusual presentation of atrial septal defect and rocker bottom foot.

Conclusion: All clinicians on noticing, any child with white forelock of hair or heterochromia iris should get the child’s hearing tested and further systemic evaluation, at the first instance, because an early intervention for hearing impairment and other defects can improve the outcome of child. Family counselling is at-most important for these children with syndromes.

We describe a unique case of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 with an unusual presentation of atrial septal defect and rocker bottom foot.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling Neonatal Mortality Rate in Nigeria Using a Continuous Poisson-Lindley Distribution

Gerald Ikechukwu Onwuka, Abraham Iorkaa Asongo, Ishako Ara Bako, Collins Aondona Ortese, Hassan Allahde

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 6-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1930538

Nigeria’s effort to reduce under-five mortality has been biased in favour of childhood mortality to the neglect of neonates and as such the literature is short of adequate information on the determinants of neonatal mortality, whereas studies have shown that about half of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. Knowledge of the determinants of neonatal mortality is essential for the design of intervention programmes that will enhance neonatal survival. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the trends in neonatal mortality in Nigeria. It also proposed a Poisson based continuous probability distribution called Poisson-Lindley distribution to neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria. Some properties of the new model and other relevant measures were obtained. The unknown parameters of the model were also estimated using the method of maximum likelihood. The fitness of the proposed model to the neonatal mortality rate was considered using a dataset on neonatal mortality rate from 1967 to 2019.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern and Outcome of Paediatric Surgeries: A Private Paediatric Hospital Experience in Southern Nigeria

Boma Awoala West, Josephine Enekole Aitafo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1930539

Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the pattern and outcome of paediatric surgeries in a private hospital in Southern Nigeria.

Study Design: A retrospective study

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at a private paediatric hospital over a 14-months period from 1st April 2020–31st May 2021.

Methodology: Essential information needed were retrieved from the hospital Health Management System and data analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results: Of 1289 children admitted during the study period, 105 had surgical interventions (prevalence of 8.1%). Age range was from 8 days to 16 years (median age of 36months) with male predominance. Only 34.3% of the patients were self-paying. The most common surgical conditions were congenital anomalies (28.1%), followed by surgical infections (22.8%) and then urogenital diseases (19.3%). The least common were central nervous system diseases (0.9%). Emergencies accounted for 39.8% of cases done. The commonest surgeries done were circumcision (16.8%), appendicectomy (15.9%) and herniotomy/herniorraphy (14.2%). One child died (mortality rate of 1%). Duration of stay was mostly < 3days (41.7%). Longest duration was seen in those who had Laparotomy and Skin graft.

Conclusion: The prevalence of surgical interventions in a paediatric private hospital in Southern Nigeria was high with emergency surgeries constituting 38.9% of all cases. Thus, for reduction in paediatric morbidity and mortality, we advocate the improvement of surgical infrastructure and manpower not only in tertiary but also in the private health sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patients’ Perceptions of Hospital Care in a Covid-19 Pandemic Population

Okechwukwu Felix Erondu, Michael Promise Ogolodom, Awajimijan Nathaniel Mbaba, Aniebo Nonyelum

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 27-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1930540

Background: COVID-19 pandemic was associated with pandemonium and misinformation, affecting patients' health-seeking behavior. This study was designed to explore patients' perceptions of hospital care during this period and to provide evidence-based and appropriate public health planning strategies.

Materials and Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 155 patients using 22 items structured and self-completion questionnaires to determine (A) Socio-demographic variables, (B) Knowledge and perception of the disease, and (C) The participants’ behaviors towards COVID-19. A Hardcopy version of the questionnaire was administered to the respondents by direct issuance.

Results: 103(66.45%) of the respondents knew the cause of COVID-19, while 104 (67.09%) agreed that people can be infected with COVID-19 in the hospital.  84 (54.19%) were afraid of a hospital visit and 66 (42.58%) are unwilling to self-report if they have minor symptoms. A large number 43(27.74%) perceived a clean environment as the impetus to make them comfortable in the hospital.

Conclusion: Our study illuminates gaps in the patients’ perceptions of hospital care during the COVID-19 pandemic, which impacted negatively on the patient population as they avoided hospitalization for fear of contracting COVID-19 in the hospital. Furthermore, appropriate public health strategies can improve patients’ perceptions and health-seeking behavior in a pandemic period.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of Ethanol Tetracarpidium conophorum Seed Extract and Its Anti-typhoidal Activity In-vitro

Faith Temiloluwa Oladipo, Ebenezer Oluyemi Dada

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1930541

Aim: This study was conducted to assess the in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of ethanol Tetracarpidium conophorum seed extract and its anti-typhoidal activity in-vitro.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Methodology: Standard methods were conducted to determine the acute toxicity test of Tetracarpidium conophorum seed ethanol extract, determination of Body Weight and Temperature of Mice, determination of antibacterial activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum seed crude extract and antibiotic sensitivity testing of clinical and typed Salmonella Typhi isolates

Results: There were no signs of toxicity such as paw licking, sleeping, reduced activity,             respiratory distress observed in mice and there were no mortality. Changes occurred in the              weight of mice in group 1 (mice treated with 200mg/kg) from 19.71g to 14.50g wherein significant increment was observed only from day 3 to 4 (18.67g to 16.00g), group 2 (mice treated                       with 400mg/kg) 19.71g to 16.00g). The ethanol extract of Tetracapidium conophorum were all resistant to typed isolates of Salmonella typhimurium and clinical isolates of Salmonella typhimurium at 6.01±0.10 mm. Ciprofloxacin (5 µg) had the highest zone of inhibition at 32.50±2.50 mm against typed Salmonella typhimurium while tetracycline (30 µg) had the least at 15.50±0.50 mm.

Conclusion: This study has revealed the anti-plasmodial efficacy of Tetracarpidium conophorum seed. Findings have shown that the ethanol seed extract of T. conophorum relatively possess anti-plasmodial and anti-typhodial activities compared to the positive antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella typhi. Auxiliary evaluation must be conducted to establish the anti-typhoidal activity of ethanol T. conophorum extract in-vivo.