Open Access Case Study

Case Study in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stunting, Low Birth Weight, Maternal Mortality and Infant Mortality in Semarang, Central Java-Indonesia

Sulistiyowati ., Ika Pantiawati, Evina Widianawati, Slamet Isworo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i2030544

Background and Objective: Stunting, low birth weight, maternal death, and child mortality have all become public health issues in recent years, particularly in Semarang, Indonesia. Simultaneously, the COVID-19 pandemic is spreading. Between the years 2019 and 2021.

Methods: The Semarang City Health Service's secondary data analysis strategy was combined with a quantitative descriptive research methodology in this study. To evaluate numerical patterns in stunting, low birth weight, maternal death, and infant mortality in the data, simple regression were utilized.

Results: According to the findings, the trend of stunting (modeling results y = 35,236 x + 361.77) and maternal mortality (modeling results 0.0218x+1.2921) increased between 2019 and 2021, whereas the trend of low birth weight (modeling results y = - 0.5425x+60.008) and child mortality (modeling results y = -0.0028x+ 2.202) decreased. The number of low birth weight has the lowest trend value, while the stunting rate has the greatest.

Conclusion: Stunting rates increased, the low birth weight dropped, maternal mortality increased, and child mortality decreased in Semarang. The conditions of the Covid-19 epidemic have at least influenced this condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness about Human Brucellosis in Healthcare Professional in India

Jinal Patel, Suman Singh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i2030543

Introduction: Human brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis of serious public health consequences. The infection is transmitted from animal to human through direct contact with infected animals or consumption of infected, unpasteurized animal milk. Being a disease with wide and non-specific clinical manifestations, a case of brucellosis can be detected only if the treating health care professional is aware of the disease and keeps a high rate of suspicion when dealing with suspected cases. We surveyed to find the extent of awareness about Human brucellosis in healthcare professionals in Gujarat, India.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare professionals from December 2020 to May 2021 using a self-administrated questionnaire. This study included healthcare professionals including AYUSH practicing in Gujarat. A validated questionnaire consisting of 23 items was administered to assess the knowledge of professionals toward suspecting, diagnosing, preventing, and managing a case of brucellosis. Both physical and Google forms were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program, IBM version 22.

Results: Sixty-nine healthcare professionals responded to the questionnaire. The findings of the study showed overall good awareness about brucellosis with a higher rate of knowledge in allopathic healthcare professionals and nurses in comparison to AYUSH doctors. Nearly 50% of respondents did not know the treatment as well as the preventive potential of human brucellosis.

Conclusion: The current study suggests a need for creating more awareness in the healthcare professional, particularly AYUSH practitioners about brucellosis for better management and prevention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria and the Use of Long-lasting Insecticide Treated Bed Nets in Households of Rural and Semi-urban Communities in Mbengwi Health District, North West Region, Cameroon

Raymond Babila Nyasa, Muyang Florence Fomundam, Chounna Ndongmo Winston Patrick, Anong Nota Damian

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 23-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i2030545

Aims: In Cameroon, on August 2011 and October 2015 the Ministry of Public Health launched the national campaign for distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) to all families as a means of effectively fighting malaria transmission. The study area Mbengwi Health District found in the North West Region of Cameroon benefitted from this distribution of LLINs, but the impact of this intervention has not been evaluated. This study was designed to assess the use of LLINs in selected households of rural and semi-urban communities in Mbengwi Health District.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in households, between July 2017 to September 2017 in Mbengwi health district.

Methodology: Two questionnaires were administered; one to the household head and the other to the occupants. Blood samples were obtained to diagnose and quantify malaria parasite and to determine hemoglobin concentrations (HB). A total of 93 households and 440 inhabitants of all sexes and age groups were surveyed.

Results: Of the 440 participants, 49 were positive for malaria parasite giving an overall prevalence of 11.1%. From the questionnaires it was observed that 87 (93.5%) of the households owned LLINs, with up to 82 (94.3%) sleeping under the nets. All the owners of LLINs (87; 100%) obtained the nets from the government free of charge. There was no significant difference in bed-net ownership (p=0.978) and usage (p=0.664) between the rural and semi-urban communities. Malaria prevalence was significantly lower among users of LLINs (4.8%) than non-users (23.5%, p<0.001). Malaria parasite density negatively correlated significantly with HB (r= -0.097, p=0.041).

Conclusion: Overall, there was a high degree ownership and usage of LLINs by households in both rural and semi-urban communities, which was associated with protection from malaria infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Risk Factors of Malaria Among Caregivers of Under-Five Children in the Buea Health District, South West Region, Cameroon

Hermann Ngouakam, Mark Agbor Akongem, Timatang Tufoin Cagetan, Ariane Laure Wounang Ngueugang, Bonaventure Tientche, Dickson Shey Nsagha

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 36-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i2030546

Aims: The study measured the level of knowledge and attitudes towards malaria and examined associated factors among caregivers of under-five children.

Study Design: The study was community-based, descriptive cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Buea Health District (BHD) from February to June 2020.

Methodology: Data were obtained through face-to-face interviews with the caregivers of under-fives. The above mean scores were used to determine the level of knowledge. The attitude levels were measured by using 3-point Likert scales. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with knowledge and attitude. SPSS software version 20.0 was used for analysis.

Results: Out of the 390 respondents, 69.5% of them had a neutral attitude. Meanwhile, 27.7 % of participants carried a favorable attitude towards malaria and only 2.8 % of them had an unfavorable attitude, Caregivers of under-five children who scored below the mean score were 25.1 % which was considered having poor knowledge and above the mean score was 74.9% which was considered good knowledge. In the multivariable logistic analysis, caregivers with a primary school level of education were 4.1 times (AOR = 4.1, CI = 1.486-11.102) times more likely of receiving a high malaria knowledge score as compared to those with no formal education. Factors associated with caregiver's attitude level towards malaria risk were educational level and marital status which showed significant associations in the univariate analysis

Conclusion: Caregivers of under-fives displayed a good knowledge of malaria risk factors. However, in these endemic areas for malaria, caregiver attitude was found to be unenthusiastic and unresponsive, and this poses additional challenges in reaching the malaria elimination goal. Thus, suggesting that educational messages during the campaign should be contextual to reach out to local communities to trigger a positive behavioural change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study about Tuberculosis in Thailand: An approach to Treatment, GIS and Sichon Model

Arak Wongworachat, Kunagorn Nituton, Choosak Nithikathkul

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i2030547

In this study, we seek to identify geographical areas where ongoing tuberculosis epidemiological characteristics is occurring by linking Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology in Thailand. In addition, we seek to assess how the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) program improved new tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment successes in Sichon District, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand from 2014 to 2016. The assessment program included seven indicators, and the results revealed that 73 new cases of tuberculosis were admitted for treatment on average every year, with rates of risk group screening findings of 4.28, 5.23, and 6.04 %, respectively. Patients who come to the hospital for diagnosis make up most of the demographic. However, only a minor proportion of patients are identified through community-based primary screening. In the years 2013-2016, the mortality rate of TB cases is expected to rise by 10.25 %, 4.25 %, and 5.56 %, respectively. The elderly and HIV-positive patients comprise most of the TB mortality population. When completing the DOTS program at a hospital, however, the rate of success has fallen short of the targets. Furthermore, the screening technique excludes the target group. As a result, people suffering tuberculosis are reported to be slower and more susceptible to symptoms. As a result, researchers advise that the DOTS program be supported by enhancing treatment follow-up to improve the effectiveness of TB treatment and collaboration with health care worker (HCW).